The Keto Craze

Posted on Posted in Continuing Education, Homestudy, Nutrition, Seminars, Webinars

By Dr. Laura Pawlak

Unlike any time in history, Americans are faced with an obesity epidemic.  The sensible weight-loss guidelines of a mere decade ago appear to be failing.

“The best foods to eat on a diet?  The best foods to eat to keep weight off?  The same foods you should eat when you are not on a diet, but just less of them.”  Dr. Frank Sacks, Harvard School of Public Health, 2009.

The above statement was based on the study of 48 popular diets. All diets failed to produce significant differences in sustained weight loss.

Fast-tracking to 2019, the American diet has drifted far from the standard of what should be consumed. The foods we eat are primarily processed, containing almost 90 percent of the diet’s added sugar.  Also, these foods contain too much salt, very little fiber, and lots of saturated fats.  Eating less of these foods may result in weight loss, but the body and brain remain unhealthy.

When it comes to dieting, today’s fast-changing lifestyle demands novel, quick fixes.  The hype in the latest keto diet craze is infectious:  Fast weight loss without exercise;  novel tools to measure rising ketone levels;  easy-to-find processed keto foods; and keto pills when the diet is too tough to follow.

You eat lots of fat (at 80 percent of calories), moderate amounts of protein (at 20 percent), and very few plant foods, sugar, or starch (at 5 percent).  The excess intake of calories from fat triggers metabolic, nutritional, and hormonal changes not meant to be sustained for long periods of time.  Guidance by a registered dietitian is definitely recommended.

The Atkins program proposes a moderate approach to the keto craze:  A choice of 20 percent or 40 percent of the diet as carbohydrates for a limit of one month — and progression toward more plant foods.

If weight loss is achieved on a keto diet, a major challenge still remains:  The need to maintain your lower, healthy weight with a diet that offers protection against disease — not a keto plan.

A 25-year study evaluating healthful longevity and diet, published in 2018, identified the foods you should eat for a long, disease-free life:  Consume approximately 50 percent of your calories as carbohydrates, primarily as whole plant food; eat proteins, mainly from fish and plants; and add healthy oils from olives, avocados, nuts, and seeds.


Dr. Laura Pawlak (Ph.D., R.D. emerita) is a world-renowned biochemist and dietitian emerita.  She is the author of many scientific publications and has written such best-selling books as “The Hungry Brain,” “Life Without Diets,” and “Stop Gaining Weight.”  On the subjects of nutrition and brain science, she gives talks internationally.

Nuts About Nuts

Posted on Posted in Brain Science, Continuing Education, Homestudy, Nutrition, Seminars, Webinars

By Dr. Laura Pawlak

Americans love nuts. Their passion has led to an increased consumption by almost 40 percent in the last 15 years.

Contrary to the belief that nuts are fattening, nuts are nutritious foods categorized as superfoods.  Nuts offer a wide variety of nutrients especially protective for the brain and cardiovascular system.

A trio of nutrients in nuts — healthy fat, fiber, and protein — make them a satisfying snack that won’t affect your waistline, assuming the portion size is a handful each day.  In fact, researchers at the Harvard School of Public Health found that regular nut consumption was associated with a slightly lower risk of weight gain and Type 2 Diabetes than a diet devoid of nuts.

A caveat is noteworthy:  If the nut is adulterated, i.e. honey glazed or chocolate coated, the word fattening would be an appropriate description of the nut.

Although nuts vary slightly in nutrient content, all varieties are beneficial. Almonds are especially high in fiber.  The macadamia nut has the most fat, mostly as monounsaturated oil.  Brazil nuts are famous for their selenium content. Pecans and hazelnuts are loaded with a variety of antioxidants.  Pistachios contain more potassium than a banana.  Cashews excel in the nutrient, lutein, a protectant for your eyes.  Walnuts provide anti-inflammatory fats similar to fish oil.

The peanut, really a legume, is a valuable addition to the nut family, offering more protein than any nut.  Ground into a nut butter, this spread is a tasty alternative to butter or margarine.

Before purchasing a peanut butter, read the label.  Unnecessary emulsifiers may be added to prevent the separation of oil.  There’s no need to purchase peanut butter with added sugar even if you have a sweet tooth.  Spread plain or crunchy peanut butter on slices of a crisp apple.  Your sweet tooth will be as satisfied as your gut.

Has your doctor asked you to lower your intake of sodium?  A few brands of peanut butter are just ground, unsalted peanuts.  Here’s a suggestion for adapting your taste buds to salt-free peanut butter:  Mix a small amount of unsalted peanut butter with the regular salted version.  Over time, increase the amount of the salt-free spread until you reach 100 percent.

In my opinion, the best-tasting peanut butter is freshly ground.  Grocery stores often place a grinder and containers next to the bulk peanut supply.  Enjoy!


Dr. Laura Pawlak (Ph.D., R.D. emerita) is a world-renown biochemist and dietitian emerita.  She is the author of many scientific publications and has written such best-selling books as “The Hungry Brain,” “Life Without Diets,” and “Stop Gaining Weight.”  On the subjects of nutrition and brain science, she gives talks internationally.

Not for Party People

Posted on Posted in Brain Science, Continuing Education, Homestudy, Psychology, Seminars, Webinars

By Mary O’Brien, M.D.

Another year is drawing to an end.  All across the country, folks are stocking up on beer and bubbly for their New Year’s celebrations.  Parties and parades, festivities and football will steal the limelight for a few short days.  But before long, the frivolity will fade and people will settle into their dreary routines.  New Year’s resolutions will be broken as quickly as they were born.  Soon another year will slip silently into oblivion.

All of this can get downright depressing if you really stop to think about it.  I mean — have you ever taken time at New Year’s to evaluate your life?  Are you accomplishing your goals and living your dreams?  Do you even remember what your goals and dreams are?  What wonderful things did you accomplish this year?  Are you a better person than you were 12 months ago?

I take these questions very seriously.  But then, I’m not a party person.  New Year’s has always been my time for taking a personal inventory, a self-assessment of growth and progress.  Having worked with older patients for decades, I’m convinced this exercise is not in vain.  People don’t stay in neutral long.  They either move forward, or they slide into reverse.  But the laws of physics hold fast.  Going in reverse is no problem.  It’s easy and requires no effort.  Going forward requires thrust or energy.  And each one of us must supply our own.

Conducting an annual self-assessment will not appeal to whiners and wimps.  And it’s probably not for party people.  It demands integrity, self-discipline, and drive.  After all, the whole point of this exercise is propelling oneself toward some pretty lofty goals.  Blaming others or the culture for one’s own faults and failures defeats the purpose.

Each of us has different challenges, circumstances, and goals.  My self-assessment questions have served me well over the years.  You may need to amend them, but see if they don’t get you thinking:

  1.  How many books have I read this year?  Did they really sharpen my thinking?
  2.  What are the most important lessons I learned?  Have I put them into practice?
  3.  Did I take good care of my body and health?
  4.  Did I give my family the time and attention it needed?
  5.  Have I learned a new skill or expanded my fund of knowledge?
  6.  Have I further developed a talent I already have?
  7.  Did I devote enough time to my spiritual life?
  8.  Did I try to make life better for others?
  9.  What did I do to invest in my future?
  10.  When I reap what I’ve sown, will I be happy with the results?

This New Year’s review may not be as scintillating as champagne or as fun as football.  But its effects will last a lot longer, and you won’t wind up with a headache!

The Holidays: A Time for Comfort Food

Posted on Posted in Brain Science, Continuing Education, Homestudy, Nutrition, Seminars, Webinars

By Dr. Laura Pawlak

The term comfort food can be traced back to 1966, when the Palm Beach Post used the term in a story:  “Adults, when under severe emotional stress, turn to what could be called ‘comfort foods.’  These foods are associated with the security of childhood, the relief of stress, and euphoric feelings.”

Although the identification of particular items as comfort foods may be unique to an individual, patterns are detectable.  In a study of American food choices, males preferred warm, hearty, meal-related comfort foods, such as steak, casseroles, and soup.   Females consumed snacks as comfort foods, such as chocolate chip cookies and ice cream. Young or middle-age people, under 55 years of age, overwhelmingly chose snack-related, comfort foods.

As the holidays approach, families and friends gather to share an array of comfort foods that provide nostalgic or cultural value.  These foods are often characterized by their high caloric nature, rich in (1) carbohydrate and fat or (2) fat and salt.

Consuming energy-dense food awakens a group of brain structures wired together into a reward system.  This brain circuitry elicits emotions based on the sensory experience of the food.  Comfort foods trigger pleasurable feelings — moments of joy.

The chemicals responsible for feeling good are two-fold:  endorphins, nature’s opioids; and endocannabinoids, the feel-good chemicals found in marijuana.  Sugary foods activate the release of endorphins.  Pizza, cheese casseroles, and other fatty foods spur the production of endocannabinoids.

When fat and sugar are combined, as in desserts, an explosion of both endorphins and endocannabinoids floods the brain, causing elation beyond nature’s offerings.  The temptation to overeat may be overwhelming, especially when a fond memory is linked to the food.

Enjoying holiday celebrations, without consuming excessive amounts of comfort foods, requires forethought.  A plan is helpful!  For example, set aside the day before the event as a time to eat fewer calories.  Drink water, coffee, and/or tea. Have two light meals — perhaps a fruit salad and a green salad.

On the day of the celebration, eat a healthy breakfast and add a salad if you feel hungry before attending the festivity.  At the party, take a deep breath between bites of your favorite foods.  Notice the positive memories that surface as you eat slowly.

Lastly, don’t take goodies home.  Holiday gatherings are meaningful times with friends, not just food.  Savor the season!


Dr. Laura Pawlak (Ph.D., R.D. emerita) is a world-renown biochemist and dietitian emerita.  She is the author of many scientific publications and has written such best-selling books as “The Hungry Brain,” “Life Without Diets,” and “Stop Gaining Weight.”  On the subjects of nutrition and brain science, she gives talks internationally.

homestudy

More Healthy Bread, Maybe Not!

Posted on Posted in Continuing Education, Homestudy, Nutrition, Seminars, Webinars

By Dr. Laura Pawlak (PhD)

The vast variety of breads available in supermarkets and bakeries reflects the unquenchable appetite of Americans for this grain-based food.  Breads labeled as “whole grain” appear to be a smart way to add fiber to your diet.

Whole grains improve regularity, slow digestion, reduce appetite, improve cholesterol, and prevent spikes in blood sugar — a major driver of obesity, high blood pressure, and Type 2 diabetes.

A whole grain bread uses the entire grain seed:  the bran (an outer layer with fiber, antioxidants, and B-vitamins); the endosperm (the middle layer of starchy carbohydrates); and the germ (the inner core, which has vitamins, minerals, some protein, and a drop of oil).

Commercial whole grain breads differ in the relative amount of whole grain content in the product.  A simple calculation, called the “10 to 1 Rule,” can guide you in choosing healthy whole grain breads:  Using the nutrition facts on the label, identify the grams of total carbohydrate and fiber.  Divide the total grams of carbs by 10.  Is there at least that much fiber stated on the label?  If so, it is considered a healthy bread.

But wait, there’s something more to consider before purchasing a whole grain bread.  Andrew Weil, M.D., an expert in Integrative Medicine, states:  “A true whole grain food retains all three parts of the seed intact.  A recent government study linked the fiber found specifically in intact whole grains to a longer, healthy life, that is, a lower risk of death at any age from conditions such as cardiovascular, respiratory and infectious diseases and possibly some cancers.”

To make bread, the intact whole grain is ground into flour.  Some of the physical properties that promote good health are less effective when whole grain seeds are processed into flour.

There are many tasty, intact whole grains available, including: amaranth; barley; brown rice; buckwheat; bulgur; cracked wheat; farro; kamut; kasha; millet; oats; quinoa; rye; wheat berries; and wild rice.  Use intact whole grains as side dishes or stuffing, in soups, stews, and salads — and as a hot, breakfast porridge.

Despite research reporting some differences in the positive effects of intact whole grains as compared to processed (ground) whole grain flour, here’s the most important message:  Aim for at least three servings of whole grains every day, including cooked, intact whole grains, whole grain cereals, and whole grain breads.  Enjoy!

Chocolate: A Smart Food

Posted on Posted in Brain Science, Continuing Education, Homestudy, Nutrition, Psychology, Seminars, Webinars

By Dr. Laura Pawlak

There is universal agreement that chocolate is a feel good food.  Chocolate melts in your mouth, releasing its sweet, creamy, cocoa flavor, and the brain follows with a burst of “happy” chemicals.

Beyond the sensory joy of eating chocolate, there are claims that chocolate is a healthy food for the brain.  Most of us would gladly eat more chocolate if proven to benefit the brain.

Several ingredients in cocoa have been proposed to explain the possible cognitive benefits of chocolate.  Cocoa contains caffeine, a substance that enhances cognitive functioning and alertness.  Major nutrients have also been identified in the cocoa bean.  Presently, studies focus on the chemical group called flavanols.

Flavanols are micronutrients found in many fruits and vegetables, especially the fruit called the cocoa bean, the basis of chocolate.  Flavanols have antioxidant and anti-inflammatory properties — important for brain health.

Small studies, often supported by chocolate manufacturers, state that the cocoa flavanols can boost mood and cognitive performance — as well as blood flow to the brain.  Researchers are now evaluating the significance of these small studies by conducting large, clinical trials using a cocoa extract with known flavanol content, not chocolate.

A dose of 600-750 milligrams of flavanols is considered healthful for the brain.  To obtain this dose, you would have to consume 4.75 ounces of dark chocolate, a total of 750 calories, or 40 ounces of milk chocolate, which has 5,850 calories.

A day with adequate flavanols from commercial chocolate is also a day heavy in sugar, saturated fat, and calories — not a formula for a sharp brain.  Perhaps future studies examining chocolate’s healthful ingredients in the cocoa extract will provide more healthful ways to capture the goodness of the cocoa bean.

Meanwhile, manufacturers divert your focus from calories to health by presenting chocolate paired with a superfood, the avocado.  Called a health food, the Avocado Chocolate Bar is made of freeze-dried avocado pulp powder, 70 percent dark chocolate — plus added sugar — and has nearly 600 calories.

The bar is a convenient, but calorie-laden, snack.  The alternative — consuming whole, fresh plant food — is always a good choice for the brain.

My suggestion:  Eat dark chocolate in moderation if you like it, not because you think it will make you smarter.  For added flavanols, focus on the abundant amounts of this nutrient in grapes and berries.  Enjoy!


Dr. Laura Pawlak (Ph.D., R.D. emerita) is a world-renowned biochemist and dietitian emerita.  She is the author of many scientific publications and has written such best-selling books as “The Hungry Brain,” “Life Without Diets,” and “Stop Gaining Weight.”  On the subjects of nutrition and brain science, she gives talks internationally.

Protein Powders

Posted on Posted in Continuing Education, Homestudy, Nutrition, Seminars, Webinars

By Annell St. Charles, PhD, R.D., L.D.N.

Protein supplements and powders have become all the rage over the last few years, particularly for people trying to build muscle.  However, most Americans already get all the protein they need from their diet, and some may even be getting too much.

Proteins are made up of amino acids, which are the key component of muscles and play many important roles in body maintenance.  Meat, poultry, fish, eggs, nuts, seeds, and legumes (dry beans or peas such as lentils, chickpeas, and kidney beans) are good sources of protein, and most Americans consume 12 to 18 percent of their calories as protein.  Dr. Van S. Hubbard, director of the NIH Division of Nutrition Research Coordination, says that most Americans do not need to worry about getting enough protein. “Unless they have some other medical problem, most people are meeting or exceeding their protein requirements,” he says. “Since protein is such a common component of most foods that you eat, if you’re eating a relatively varied diet, you’re getting enough protein.”  However, some populations, like vegetarians and older people, need to be aware of the protein in their diets.  Vegetarians can get the protein they need from rice, beans, eggs, peanut butter, dairy products, and bread.  Vegans need to be particularly careful, as they do not consume either eggs or dairy products.

A recent National Institutes of Health study of men and women age 70 years and older found that those who ate the least protein lost significantly more muscle than those who ate the most protein.  Older adults who lose muscle in their legs and hips are more likely to fall and have injuries like broken hips.  They may also have trouble doing basic things like getting up from a chair, walking upstairs, or taking a stroll due to loss of muscle strength.  For elderly people who cannot eat enough protein or who have diseases that leave them malnourished, a protein supplement can be one way to help get enough protein.

Nevertheless, the majority of Americans derive little benefit from increasing their protein intake.  Long-term studies found that high-protein diets that result in weight loss usually work as a result of the amount of calories rather than the amount of protein being consumed.

Recent weight loss, muscle fatigue, or a drop in muscle strength may be signs of protein deficiency, but these symptoms could also be due to other health conditions.

The Party’s Over

Posted on Posted in Continuing Education, Homestudy, Nutrition, Seminars, Webinars

By Dr. Laura Pawlak

Holiday food and spirits may have disappeared, but those extra calories can stubbornly remain as body fat.  With each new year, an array of diets emerges, promising to restore your former shape.

My suggestion?  This year, follow a new plan called Intermittent Fasting, which has captured the interest of both dieters and researchers.  Intermittent Fasting is a structured program without the drudgery of daily calorie deprivation.

Although traditional reduced-calorie diets are certainly science-based, intermittent fasting is a sensible alternative.  Studies suggest a modified fast is just as beneficial for weight loss as other diets.

For this program, the term “fasting” is defined as consuming a total of 500 calories for women and 600 calories for men on fasting days. If calorie counting is not convenient, you can eat about 25 percent of your normal calories on fasting days.  More importantly, you abstain from eating all calorie-containing foods and beverages for 14 hours (women) or 16 hours (men) on fasting days.

The popular 5:2 Intermittent Fasting Diet is appealing because the two fasting days each week can be chosen to fit one’s schedule best.  On the remaining five days, you eat sensibly.  If weight loss is your goal, it is important to avoid overcompensation during non-fasting days.

Alternate-day Fasting is a more aggressive approach to weight loss.  You consume only 500-600 calories every other day following the 14- to 16-hour fast. Recently, scientists compared the Alternate-day Fasting program with a standard weight-loss diet for six months followed by a maintenance diet for an additional six months.  Persons choosing the fasting program had slightly greater weight loss than individuals following the standard low-calorie diet.

To limit calories during fasting days, consider making a homemade soup, then establish portions and freeze individual servings.  A simple vegetable soup with legumes and wild rice or whole wheat quinoa is nutritious, high in fiber, and low in calories.  A variety of salad ingredients with fish or turkey and calorie-free dressing is always an excellent choice.  An egg-white omelet using fresh or leftover vegetables provides quality protein needed to protect muscle mass.

To dampen appetite during fasting days, choose vegetables high in fiber and protein-rich foods low in fat. Try adding herbs and spices to cooked vegetables.  They light up your taste buds with pleasing flavors and aromas.


Dr. Laura Pawlak (Ph.D., R.D. emerita) is a world-renowned biochemist and dietitian emerita.  She is the author of many scientific publications and has written such best-selling books as “The Hungry Brain,” “Life Without Diets,” and “Stop Gaining Weight.”  On the subjects of nutrition and brain science, she gives talks internationally.

Vitamins & Minerals: What Does The Body Need?

Posted on Posted in Brain Science, Continuing Education, Elder Care, Homestudy, Nutrition, Seminars

By Annell St. Charles, Ph.D., R.D., L.D.N.

In 1912, Casimir Funk, a Polish biochemist, isolated a concentrate from rice polishings that cured polyneuritis in pigeons.  He called the substance a “vital amine” or “vitamine” because it appeared to be vital for life.  There was widespread interest in eradicating several prevalent diseases at the time, and, in an article published in 1912, Funk postulated the existence of four substances:  one that prevented beriberi (“antiberiberi”), one that prevented scurvy (“antiscorbutic”), one that prevented pellagra (“antipellagric”), and one that prevented rickets (“antirachitic”).  Funk was one of several researchers in the early 20th century investigating these and other substances and their connection to health.

Epidemiologists, physicians, physiologists, and chemists all worked on this puzzle through the mid-20th century; the work was slow and onerous and plagued by many setbacks and contradictions.  Chemists were the ones ultimately able to identify and isolate the substances we call vitamins, leading to the development of synthetic forms that are available for wide consumption.  The proposed benefits and risks of vitamins and vitamin supplementation continue to be hot topics today.

The vitamins needed by the body for growth and normal development are:

  • Vitamin A
  • B Vitamins (vitamin B6, vitamin B12, folate, and others)
  • Vitamin C
  • Vitamin D
  • Vitamin E
  • Vitamin K

Vitamins are divided into two groups:

  • Water-soluble are easily absorbed by the gut and stored only minimally. These include Vitamin C, thiamin, riboflavin,niacin, biotin, pantothenic acid, B6, folic acid, B12, and others.
  • Fat-soluble are stored in body tissues and excess accumulation can be toxic.  Vitamins A, D, E, and K are fat-soluble vitamins.

Macrominerals & Trace Elements

These essential inorganic elements are categorized by abundance:

  • Macro-minerals are present in the body over 100 mg:  calcium, phosphorus, magnesium, potassium, sodium, chloride, and sulfur.
  • Trace elements are present in microgram or low-milligram amounts:  iron, zinc, iodine, selenium, copper, manganese, fluoride, chromium, molybdenum, silicon, nickel, boron, arsenic, tin, and vanadium.

More Sugar, Please.

Posted on Posted in Continuing Education, Nutrition, Psychology, Seminars, Webinars

By Laura Pawlak, Ph.D., R.D. (emerita)

Love sugar?  This innate desire for sweets can be traced to an ancient part of the brain — the reward circuit.  The sweet, sensory experience is recorded as a rewarding one as endorphin molecules (natural opioids) bathe the brain.  A long-lasting memory of the tasty experience is stored deep inside the brain.  There is purpose to the “feel good” experience resulting from sweetness.  You will search for, and continue to consume, the ideal fuel for your mind — the simple carbohydrates in sugar.

Nature offers fruits, vegetables, and other plant foods to satiate the need for carbohydrate — along with fiber and a wide variety of nutrients in these foods.  But nature is no competition for the added sugar in today’s super-sweet desserts, snacks, packaged foods, and beverages.  Manufacturers add some form of sugar to 74 percent of their products.

Liquid sugar, such as found in sodas, energy drinks, and sport beverages, is the leading single source of added sugar in the American diet.  The rapidly absorbed sweetened beverage is linked to sugar addiction, obesity, Type 2 diabetes (often called adult-onset diabetes), and other diseases.  Worldwide education regarding the disease risks linked to the consumption of sugary drinks has resulted in the decline of soda sales.  As summer approaches, manufacturers offer new products to quench your thirst — products called plant waters.

These beverages are made from extracts of fruits, vegetables, grains, grasses, and other plant parts, with fewer calories than sugary beverages or no calories at all.  Manufacturers of plant waters promote their products with a variety of unsubstantiated health claims.

For example:  Artichoke Water, a sugar-free, zero-calorie beverage, is claimed to be healthy because artichokes have antioxidant and anti-inflammatory properties.  Where’s the artichoke in this water?

Made with concentrated bamboo-leaf extract, Bamboo Water is stated to contain the powerful benefits of bamboo.  Is bamboo really a food source for humans?

Other beverages produced from plant sources, such as the olive, banana, cactus, barley, and maple sap are also available — all with dubious health claims and varying amounts of sugar.

Here’s a sound approach to quenching your thirst this summer.  Drink these plant waters if you like them and if you don’t mind their cost.  They lack the nutrients and fiber obtained by eating whole-plant foods, and they won’t prevent disease.  The best choice is nature’s offering:  A healthy, refreshing glass of water and some juicy, fresh fruit.  Enjoy the summer!

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Dr. Laura Pawlak (Ph.D., R.D. emerita) is a world-renown biochemist and dietitian emerita.  She is the author of many scientific publications and has written such best-selling books as “The Hungry Brain,” “Life Without Diets,” and “Stop Gaining Weight.”  On the subjects of nutrition and brain science, she gives talks internationally.