More Sugar, Please.

Posted on Posted in Continuing Education, Nutrition, Psychology, Seminars, Webinars

By Laura Pawlak, Ph.D., R.D. (emerita)

Love sugar?  This innate desire for sweets can be traced to an ancient part of the brain — the reward circuit.  The sweet, sensory experience is recorded as a rewarding one as endorphin molecules (natural opioids) bathe the brain.  A long-lasting memory of the tasty experience is stored deep inside the brain.  There is purpose to the “feel good” experience resulting from sweetness.  You will search for, and continue to consume, the ideal fuel for your mind — the simple carbohydrates in sugar.

Nature offers fruits, vegetables, and other plant foods to satiate the need for carbohydrate — along with fiber and a wide variety of nutrients in these foods.  But nature is no competition for the added sugar in today’s super-sweet desserts, snacks, packaged foods, and beverages.  Manufacturers add some form of sugar to 74 percent of their products.

Liquid sugar, such as found in sodas, energy drinks, and sport beverages, is the leading single source of added sugar in the American diet.  The rapidly absorbed sweetened beverage is linked to sugar addiction, obesity, Type 2 diabetes (often called adult-onset diabetes), and other diseases.  Worldwide education regarding the disease risks linked to the consumption of sugary drinks has resulted in the decline of soda sales.  As summer approaches, manufacturers offer new products to quench your thirst — products called plant waters.

These beverages are made from extracts of fruits, vegetables, grains, grasses, and other plant parts, with fewer calories than sugary beverages or no calories at all.  Manufacturers of plant waters promote their products with a variety of unsubstantiated health claims.

For example:  Artichoke Water, a sugar-free, zero-calorie beverage, is claimed to be healthy because artichokes have antioxidant and anti-inflammatory properties.  Where’s the artichoke in this water?

Made with concentrated bamboo-leaf extract, Bamboo Water is stated to contain the powerful benefits of bamboo.  Is bamboo really a food source for humans?

Other beverages produced from plant sources, such as the olive, banana, cactus, barley, and maple sap are also available — all with dubious health claims and varying amounts of sugar.

Here’s a sound approach to quenching your thirst this summer.  Drink these plant waters if you like them and if you don’t mind their cost.  They lack the nutrients and fiber obtained by eating whole-plant foods, and they won’t prevent disease.  The best choice is nature’s offering:  A healthy, refreshing glass of water and some juicy, fresh fruit.  Enjoy the summer!

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Dr. Laura Pawlak (Ph.D., R.D. emerita) is a world-renown biochemist and dietitian emerita.  She is the author of many scientific publications and has written such best-selling books as “The Hungry Brain,” “Life Without Diets,” and “Stop Gaining Weight.”  On the subjects of nutrition and brain science, she gives talks internationally.

Diet and Alzheimer’s Disease

Posted on Posted in Brain Science, Continuing Education, Elder Care, Homestudy, Psychology, Seminars, Webinars

What weighs a mere four pounds and has a workload that demands 20 percent of all the oxygen inhaled?  Answer:  the human brain.

As technology opens the door to the unique metabolic functions of the brain, scientists are investigating the nutrients required to keep mentally sharp over the decades.

With dementia rising at an alarming rate — along with obesity, diabetes, heart disease, and other ailments — let’s eat with purpose, using sound, nutrition-related science applicable to the brain and the rest of the body.

Starting with the belief that what we eat plays a significant role in determining who gets dementia, Martha Clare Morris, Ph.D. and colleagues developed the MIND Diet as an intervention against the most common cause of neurodegeneration:  Alzheimer’s disease.

The work of Morris and her colleagues is based on research completed at Rush Medical University in Chicago, Illinois.  The term “MIND” is an acronym for Mediterranean-DASH Intervention for Neurodegenerative Delay.

The DASH diet plan is based on research sponsored by the U.S. National Institutes of Health.  The plan was developed to lower blood pressure without the use of medication.

The Mediterranean and DASH diets are models of healthy eating for the body.  The Morris team chose foods that improve brain function significantly and also added to overall body wellness.

Adherence to the MIND diet may lower the risk of Alzheimer’s disease by as much as 53%, offering more protection for the brain than any other dietary regimen.

The MIND cuisine lists 10 brain-healthy food groups (green leafy vegetables, other vegetables, nuts, berries, beans, whole grains, fish, poultry, olive oil, and wine).  The plan limits consumption of five brain-unhealthy food groups (red meats, butter/stick margarine, cheese, pastries/sweets, and fried or fast food).

The plan suggests a minimum of three servings of whole grains, a salad, and one other vegetable every day — along with a glass of wine.  For snacks, add a variety of nuts.  Berries are the only fruits recommended.

Specifically, blueberries are noted as the powerful protectors of the brain.  Strawberries are a second choice for good cognitive function.

Use Google and enter the term “MIND Diet” for daily guidelines and recipes of a cuisine designed to maximize brain function while providing healthy foods for the rest of the body as well.


Dr. Laura Pawlak (Ph.D., R.D. emerita) is a world-renown biochemist and dietitian emerita.  She is the author of many scientific publications and has written such best-selling books as “The Hungry Brain,” “Life Without Diets,” and “Stop Gaining Weight.”  On the subjects of nutrition and brain science, she gives talks internationally.

 

Mood and Food

Posted on Posted in Brain Science, Homestudy, Nutrition, Psychology, Seminars, Webinars

What you eat can affect your risk of the most common mood disorder in the United States:  depression.

Mental health begins with lifestyle:  nutritious food; regular exercise; sufficient sleep; and coping skills.

The chemical components of food impact one’s state of mind throughout the day — that is, after every meal and snack.  A long period of time without nourishment (fasting) activates survival emotions throughout the brain.  Food, or the lack of it, thus alters both feelings and thoughts.

A significant part of the treatment program for patients with depression is a brain-healthy diet prescription designed by what may be termed a nutritional psychiatrist.  Clearly, changing one’s eating habits requires more time and energy than swallowing a pill.  However, research in mental health has appeared, showing the flaws of prescribing quick-fix medications — in the absence of healthy habits.

A recent study published in BioMed Central Medicine tested the effect of prescribing both a modified Mediterranean Diet and medication to treat patients with clinical depression.  Thirty-three percent of the patients given medication plus a modified Mediterranean Diet plan achieved remission in 12 weeks.  However, eight percent of the patients prescribed medication only reached remission in the same period of time. (Study by S. Reddy, January, 2017)  This mood-enhancing cuisine is highly concentrated in brain-protective foods:  fruits; vegetables; legumes; whole grains; raw, unsalted nuts; low-fat, unsweetened dairy foods; olive oil; and fish.

The positive effects of nutrition intervention reported in this study have encouraged psychiatrists to prioritize this diet prescription for all patients diagnosed with depression.  The modified Mediterranean food plan may help prevent the incidence of depression in persons at high risk, aid patients who reject medication, and may block the progression from mild depression to serious depression.

Regardless of one’s family history, the brain can slip into an imbalanced state that alters mood and mind-power. The wise statement, “You become what you eat,” applies to everyone.  The original Mediterranean cuisine has already scored high ratings against brain atrophy, pain, and all age-related diseases.  The Mind Diet, another modified format of the Mediterranean Diet, reduces the risk of Alzheimer’s disease.

Cook, eat, and share mood-enhancing meals.  It’s a challenge that delivers great rewards for the brain — sharper thinking and happier moments.
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Dr. Laura Pawlak (Ph.D., R.D. emerita) is a world-renown biochemist and dietitian emerita.  She is the author of many scientific publications and has written such best-selling books as “The Hungry Brain,” “Life Without Diets,” and “Stop Gaining Weight.”  On the subjects of nutrition and brain science, she gives talks internationally.

Finding Felicity in Food and Work

Posted on Posted in Brain Science, Continuing Education, Nutrition, Seminars, Webinars

“Life Is Good.” These three words have blossomed into a worldwide slogan.  Why?  You feel good just reading the words.

These days life elicits more worries than “happies.” Good times are short-lived and may be prone to addiction:  compulsive shopping with credit cards; eating comfort foods loaded with calories; drinking too much alcohol; or searching for drug dealers to soothe emotional or physical pain.  Sustainable happiness begins with the simple things:  the food you eat and the work you do.

Brain imaging has identified the pathway that produces good feelings.  Named the Reward Circuit, you experience an emotional response to foods consumed and work performed. Thus, the recommendation to “eat right and move more,” can improve both happiness and health.

Is eating right a happy experience?  It’s pretty obvious that foods high in fat, sugar, and salt light up the Reward Circuit, elevating feelings of joy.  Is it possible to eat foods that are healthy for the brain and add “happy” to your mood?

Researchers at the University of Warwick in Coventry UK say “yes!”  The staff followed 12,000 adults from Australian households for six years.  Participants kept food diaries and answered survey questions about their lives as well as their mental and emotional health.  By the end of the second year, participants who changed from eating no fruits and vegetables a day to eight portions a day reported feeling happier.  Participants who did not increase their intake of fruits and vegetables over the same period experienced a drop in happiness score.  The “happy” power of fruits and vegetables was equivalent to going from unemployment to a job. (American Journal of Public Health, August, 2016)

Consuming eight servings of fruits and vegetables each day (about four cups) provides thousands of antioxidants and anti-inflammatory nutrients that improve brain function in measurable, mood-altering ways.

What about work?  Regardless of the wording (labor, exercise, work, or toil), the brain activates, controls, and evaluates movement.  Both psychologists and neuroscientists have independently addressed the theory that work ignites positive emotions.

Psychologists investigated a unique consumer issue called “The Ikea Effect,” that is, the consequences of buyers’ assembling items purchased.  The study concluded that assembling an item boosted feelings of pride, confidence, and competence even when the end product was poorly assembled.  It appeared that work, especially with the hands, activated the Reward Circuit.

Real-time imaging of the brain, conducted by Kelly Lambert, a neuroscientist, confirmed the conclusions of the Ikea study.  Dr. Lambert recruited persons with untreated depression and set up work projects, such as pottery-making, wood carving, or knitting.  She demonstrated that labor with the hands and arms activated the Reward Circuit, elevating positive emotions sufficiently to eliminate the symptoms of depression in her patients.  Dr. Lambert labeled the process as “effort-driven reward.”  Yes, work can be a happy experience.  And, when the effort is purposeful and helps others, the happiness rating is even higher. (“Lifting Depression” by Kelly Lambert, 2010)

“The groundwork for all happiness is good health.” –Leigh Hunt, English poet


Dr. Laura Pawlak (Ph.D., R.D. emerita) is a world-renown biochemist and dietitian emerita.  She is the author of many scientific publications and has written such best-selling books as “The Hungry Brain,” “Life Without Diets,” and “Stop Gaining Weight.”  On the subjects of nutrition and brain science, she gives talks internationally.

Celebrate the Brain

Posted on Posted in Brain Science, Continuing Education, Homestudy, Nutrition, Psychology, Seminars, Webinars

fondue-709713_640Thanksgiving and the many holidays that follow are joyful times to be with family and friends.  Holiday cheer, a positive emotion, can also provide the brain with healthful hormones and neurochemicals that improve brain function.

Family traditions boost enjoyment of holiday gatherings.  In a recent series of studies in the Journal of the Association for Consumer Research, subjects described the customs they followed — along with those of their families — during holidays.  These activities were rated as enjoyable, personal experiences that enhanced bondings with family members.  In fact, simply recalling past traditions can put a warm glow on holiday gatherings and support creative thinking.

Memories of childhood or lost loved ones often surface at celebrations.  The bittersweet feeling of nostalgia can elevate mood and mental outlook.  A recent study published in the journal, Emotion, reported that nostalgia boosts a sense of connection to the past, creating a social web that extends across people and time.  This “self-continuity” energizes the brain.  So, pull out an old photo album and spend some time revisiting your past this season.

When listing New Year’s resolutions, resolve to keep friendships alive throughout the year.  The benefits of supportive relationships are numerous.  Research published online in the Journal of Epidemiology and Community Health (2016), stated that individuals who have greater levels of social support enjoy better psychological health and mental functioning.  The reduction of chronic stress and the stimulation associated with meaningful social interaction are strongly linked to improved resilience and reduced risk of anxiety and depression.  There is also a lower likelihood of cognitive decline.

The highlight of any holiday is food, often deeply entwined with tradition, but possibly devoid of brain-healthy choices.  Compromises that allow both brain-healthy and traditionally-happy fare, including desserts, can solve this dilemma.  First, shift the spotlight from rich food to lighter fare by serving salad as the first course.  Go heavy on the greens, colored veggies, and crunchy bits of apples or pears.  Second, make a healthy vegetable side dish the co-star of the main course.  Third, regarding the turkey, think outside the bread box with offerings such as wild-rice stuffing, augmented with vegetables and dried cranberries.  Lastly, the first bite of dessert, thoughtfully consumed, always gets rated as the best.

Enjoy the fabulous taste of that bite!  Then, empower your mind with oxygen — by taking a mindful walk — to complete the celebration of your brain.


Dr. Laura Pawlak (Ph.D., R.D. emerita) is a world-renown biochemist and dietitian emerita.  She is the author of many scientific publications and has written such best-selling books as “The Hungry Brain,” “Life Without Diets,” and “Stop Gaining Weight.”  On the subjects of nutrition and brain science, she gives talks internationally.

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And The Winner Is…….The Grape!

Posted on Posted in Continuing Education, Nutrition, Psychology, Seminars, Webinars

Nature introduced our ancestors to the first sampling of wine about 10 million years ago. As fruit ripened and fell to the earth, a natural process of decomposition occurred.

Microbes in the soil turned fruit sugar into a simpler component, ethyl alcohol.  Some curious, hungry ancestor, eating the decaying fruit, probably rejected the taste, but loved the altered state of mind.  A sophisticated version of nature’s process, called fermentation, was perfected, producing wines that delight the palate as well as the mind.

My  grandmother lived in rural Manitoba, Canada, and made her own wine from wild berries picked in late summer.  Her doctor recommended a glass of wine each night for good sleep and longevity.  In her generation, that glass was small, holding a mere four ounces.  Although today’s wine goblet may be enormous in size, the recommended intake of wine remains 4-6 ounces per day.  At high doses, the alcoholic content of wine may be both addictive and toxic to the brain.  An alternative choice is nonalcoholic wine.

Fermentation of the grape produces any array of chemical changes.  In addition to the conversion of sugar to alcohol, compounds in the grape’s skin and pulp are released, creating more than color, aroma, and a distinctive taste.  Vitamins, minerals, and an array of other nutrients are released into the liquid brew.  One of the heart-healthy plant chemicals concentrated in wine is the antioxidant resveratrol.  How does the content of resveratrol in wine compare with that in grapes or grape juice?

Resveratrol contributes color to grapes.  Red, purple, and black grapes are better sources of the chemical than white or green grapes.  Secondly, there is more resveratrol in the skin of the grape than in the pulp.  Fermentation releases the resveratrol from the grape’s skin into the liquid.  Thus, for the same weight or volume, red wine generally has more resveratrol than dark grapes or its juice.  Keep in mind that the fresh grape is an excellent choice, perhaps better than grape juice or wine.  For variety, peanuts, pistachios, cocoa, blueberries, and cranberries are good sources of resveratrol.

If you want more resveratrol in your diet, get it from food or wine, not from pills. Whole food or a glass of your favorite wine contains nutrients that work with this super antioxidant (resveratrol) for more healthful years.


Dr. Laura Pawlak (Ph.D., R.D. emerita) is a world-renown biochemist and dietitian emerita.  She is the author of many scientific publications and has written such best-selling books as “The Hungry Brain,” “Life Without Diets,” and “Stop Gaining Weight.”  On the subjects of nutrition and brain science, she gives talks internationally.

Binge Eating Disorder

Posted on Posted in Continuing Education, Homestudy, Nutrition, Psychology, Seminars, Webinars

fat-foods-binge-eatingBy Nikita Katz, MD, PhD

Binge eating disorder is an illness that resembles bulimia nervosa.  Like bulimia, the disorder is characterized by episodes of uncontrolled eating or binging—occurring, on average, at least once a week for three months, according to DSM-5.  However, binge eating disorder differs from bulimia because its sufferers do not purge their bodies of excess food.

Individuals with binge eating disorder feel that they lose control of themselves when eating. While they commonly eat fewer meals than people without eating disorders.  When they do eat, they eat rapidly, consuming large quantities of food and do not stop until they are uncomfortably full.  When binging, they typically do so alone because they feel embarrassed by how much they are eating, and they tend to feel disgusted with themselves, depressed, or very guilty afterward.  Usually, they have more difficulty losing weight and keeping it off than do people with other serious weight problems. Most people with the disorder are obese and have a history of weight fluctuations.

Binge eating disorder is found in about two percent of the general population—more often in women than men.  Recent research shows that binge eating disorder occurs in about 30 percent of people participating in medically supervised weight-control programs.

Because people with binge eating disorder are usually overweight, they are prone to the serious medical problems associated with obesity, such as high cholesterol, high blood pressure, and diabetes. Obese individuals also have a higher risk for gallbladder disease, heart disease, and some types of cancer. Research at the National Institutes of Health and elsewhere has shown that individuals with binge eating disorder have high rates of co-occurring psychiatric illnesses, especially depression.

Cognitive behavioral therapy and interpersonal therapy are the treatments found to produce the greatest degree of remission in patients with binge eating disorder.  Also, there can be improvements in specific eating-disorder psychopathology, associated psychiatric problems such as depression and psychosocial functioning.

Epidemiology of Eating Disorders

Estimates of the incidence or prevalence of eating disorders vary depending on the sampling and assessment methods.

  • Eating disorders have generally been recognized as affecting a narrow population of Caucasian adolescent or adult young women from developed Western countries.  In recent years, data are steadily accumulating to document that:
  • The prevalence of anorexia nervosa and bulimia nervosa in children and younger adolescents is unknown.
  • Approximately 0.5–1 percent of adolescents suffer from anorexia nervosa and 1–5 percent suffer from bulimia nervosa. Female college students are at highest risk of the latter.
  • An estimated 85 percent of eating disorders have their onset during adolescence.
  • Estimates of the lifetime prevalence of bulimia nervosa among women have ranged from 1.1 to 4.2 percent. Some studies suggest that the prevalence of bulimia nervosa in the United States may have decreased slightly in recent years.
  • The reported lifetime prevalence of anorexia nervosa among women has ranged from 0.5 percent for narrowly defined to 4 percent for more broadly defined anorexia nervosa.
  • Estimates of the male-female prevalence ratio range from 1:5 to 1:10 (although 19-30 percent of younger patient populations with anorexia nervosa are male).
  • An estimated five million Americans suffer from eating disorders at any given time, including approximately 5 percent of women and <1 percent of men with either anorexia nervosa, bulimia nervosa, or binge eating disorder.
    • eating disorders have become more common in pre-pubertal children and women in middle and late adulthood in such countries
    • ethnic and racial minority groups in these countries are vulnerable to eating disorders, and
    • there is nothing uniquely “Western” about eating disorders, which are a global health problem.

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About Systemic Lupus Erythematosus (SLE)

Posted on Posted in Continuing Education, Elder Care, Homestudy, Pain, Seminars, Webinars

bhmkclteeodsgq5wrqwaSystemic lupus erythematosus (SLE) is an autoimmune disease that can cause damage to the heart, lungs, kidneys, joints, skin, brain, and blood vessels.   It is characterized by flare-ups, and symptoms, ranging from mild to severe, including extreme fatigue, chest pain, anemia, swelling in legs and near the eyes, painful joints, fever, skin rashes, hair loss, and kidney problems.

At least 1.5 million Americans suffer from lupus.  The ratio of female to male is 9:1 according to the Lupus Foundation of America.   African-American women are far more likely to be affected than are Caucasian women.   Recent research points to a strong genetic role, but environmental and hormonal factors seem to be involved in lupus as well.

Diagnosis can be difficult and may be delayed because the onset of symptoms is hard for patients to pinpoint and because the wide variety of symptoms overlap with many other conditions.  To diagnose lupus, the clinician takes a careful history, performs a physical exam, and orders anti-nuclear antibodies and other laboratory tests.

Although lupus can be life-threatening, some 80 to 90 percent of sufferers can expect to live a normal lifespan if they are carefully monitored and treated.

Management of lupus is directed at preventing flare-ups, treating symptoms, and preventing or slowing damage to organs.  According to the National Institute of Arthritis and Musculoskeletal and Skin Diseases (NIAMS), the principal medications include:

  • NSAIDs to reduce inflammation.
  • Anti-malarials such as hydroxychloroquine (Plaquenil®) to prevent flare-ups.
  • Corticosteroids such as prednisone (Deltasone®), hydrocortisone, methylprednisolone (Medrol®), and dexamethasone (Decadron®, Hexadrol®) to reduce inflammation.
  • Immunosuppressive agents such as cyclophosphamide (Cytoxan®) and mycophenolate mofetil (CellCept®) to inhibit an overactive immune system.  Belimumab (Benlysta®) is a B-lymphocyte stimulator protein inhibitor that was approved by FDA 2011 for patients with lupus who are receiving other standard therapies.  It may reduce the number of abnormal B cells thought to be a problem in lupus.
  • Methotrexate (Folex®, Mexate®, Rheumatrex®), a disease-modifying antirheumatic drug, may be used to help control the disease in some patients.

Other treatments may include hormonal therapies such as dehydroepiandrosterone (DHEA) and intravenous immunoglobulin, which may be useful for controlling lupus when other treatments haven’t worked.

A variety of self-care and complementary approaches can be useful, including exercise, diet, the avoidance of sun exposure, and skin protection.  Patients are advised to recognize early signs of a flare-up and get immediate medical attention.

Findings from prospective human studies have strengthened the evidence of a connection between lupus and vitamin D status.  There is evidence that increased vitamin D levels (via supplementation) may help reduce inflammation.  A reasonable dose would be 2000 IU of vitamin D3 on a daily basis.  Vitamin D levels are easily checked.

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Avoiding Holiday Weight Gain

Posted on Posted in Continuing Education, Homestudy, Psychology, Seminars

pumpkin-pie-520655_640Turkey, stuffing, mashed potatoes, gravy, sweet potato casserole, cranberry sauce, more mashed potatoes, pumpkin pie, pecan pie, cherry pie, triple chocolate cheesecake, cookies, fudge, fruitcake. Okay, pass on the fruitcake. Is it any wonder why the vast majority of exercise equipment is sold in the month of January? This year, with a little foresight and planning, things could be different.

Prevention has always been preferable to cure. A few weeks of “preventive dieting” is not a bad way to avoid the shock and horror of stepping on the scale in January. It need not be as stringent as clear liquids and lettuce from Thanksgiving to New Year’s. That would be cruel and unusual punishment. However, a few, simple, common sense measures really can make a significant difference:

  • Have a healthy breakfast with some protein and whole grains. People who routinely eat breakfast (not a crème-filled doughnut) consume an average of two hundred calories less per day than people who skip breakfast.
  • Try not to drink calories. Avoid sugary beverages such as sodas, sweetened tea, lemonade, juice drinks. Diet sodas may be tempting, but they can actually cause an increase in appetite.
  • Cut back on alcohol for several weeks. Save the wine or cocktails for the really special meals. Alcohol consumption generally increases significantly from Thanksgiving through New Year’s. Unfortunately, alcohol is loaded with empty calories and can slow metabolic rate. It also disrupts normal sleep architecture.
  • Preserve and protect sleep. Multiple studies now confirm that sleep deprivation in both children and adults is associated with weight gain. There is no mystery. Even one night of inadequate sleep can adversely affect numerous hormones, including cortisol, thyroid, growth hormone, leptin, and ghrelin. Metabolic rate can drop and appetite increases. The result is weight gain. Ease up on the late nights and parties.
  • Aim for 30 minutes of exercise every day. There’s no need to wait for January 2. The benefits of exercise are legion. Apart from the improvement in conditioning, strength, and flexibility, exercise is a terrific way to cope with holiday stress, improve sleep quality, and possibly escape annoying relatives for a while.
  • Have a light, high-protein snack before heading off to a party. Working all day, skipping dinner, and arriving at a party in a state of semi-starvation is a recipe for overindulgence. Some yogurt, a little cottage cheese, or a small bowl of cereal before leaving the house can boost self-control in the face of tempting treats.
  • Downsize plates, bowls, glasses, and mugs. Most people will eat whatever food is presented on a plate, whether it’s 10 inches or 6 inches. Use small luncheon plates or salad plates at home for every meal. This is a great strategy for year-round weight control.
  • Split dessert with a friend even at the “big event” meals. TUMS will not be required as the after-dinner mint.

Avoiding holiday weight gain is not the impossible dream. It’s entirely possible with a little planning and discipline. Besides, no one will really miss all that fruitcake.

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Cold Symptoms and Complications

Posted on Posted in Continuing Education, Homestudy, Nutrition, Seminars, Webinars

Couple suffering from cold in bed

By Ben Hayes, MD, PhD, FAAD

Cold symptoms generally emerge between one and three days after a cold virus enters the body and resolve in a week, with or without medication.  One cold in four lasts up to 14 days; this most often occurs in children, the elderly, and people who are in poor health.  Smokers often have more severe, extended cold symptoms than nonsmokers.

Fewer than five percent of colds lead to such complications as bronchitis, middle ear infection, or sinusitis accompanied by a prolonged cough.  But between five and 15 percent of children who have colds develop acute ear infection when bacteria or viruses infiltrate the space behind the eardrum.  A cold can produce wheezing, even in children who do not have asthma. Symptoms of asthma, bronchitis, and emphysema can be exacerbated for many weeks.  Symptoms that persist for more than two weeks or that recur might be more allergy than infection-related.

Post-infectious cough, which usually produces phlegm, may disrupt sleep and persist for weeks or months following a cold. This complication has been associated with asthma-like symptoms and can be treated with asthma medications prescribed by a physician.  Medical attention is indicated if symptoms progress to:

  • sinusitis
  • ear pain
  • high fever
  • a cough that worsens as other symptoms abate
  • a flare-up of asthma or of another chronic lung problem
  • significantly swollen glands
  • strep throat
  • bronchiolitis
  • pneumonia
  • croup

Babies can have between five to seven colds during their first two years of life. This enhanced susceptibility results both from immature immune systems and from exposure to older children who are often careless abut washing their hands or covering coughs and sneezes.  Nasal congestion and runny nose are the most common symptoms of colds in babies.  Treatment consists of breathing moist air and drinking plenty of fluids.  Medical attention is recommended at the first sign of a cold in infants less than three months of age because of a heightened risk for pneumonia, coup, and other complications.

Physician evaluation is also necessary if a baby of any age:

  • has an uncomplicated cold, the symptoms of which last for more than seven days.
  • does not wet a diaper properly.
  • refuses to nurse or accept fluids.
  • coughs up blood-tinged sputum or coughs hard enough to cause vomiting or changes in skin color.
  • has trouble breathing.
  • has bluish-tinted lips or mouth.
  • has a temperature higher than 102°F for one day
  • has a temperature higher than 101°F for more than three days.
  • shows signs of having ear pain.
  • has reddened eyes or yellow-eye discharge.
  • has a cough or thick green nasal discharge for more than a week.
  • has any other symptoms that concern parents and/or caregivers.

PREVENTION

Common sense plays an important part in preventing the common cold.  Absolute avoidance of cold viruses is virtually impossible to achieve, but experts advise keeping a healthy distance from anyone who is ill.  The actions the human body takes to clear infection are the same actions that spread the infection to others.  Sneezing, for example, is a response to irritation of the nose and mouth.  Sneezing as well as a runny nose is the body’s attempt to expel cold viruses before they can invade the nasal passages more deeply. Unfortunately, a sneeze sends infectious particles hurtling through the air at a speed of more than 100 miles an hour.

Simply being in the company of someone who has a cold can contaminate the hands of another person.  Touching one’s eyes, nose, or mouth can transfer the infection.  It is imperative to wash hands thoroughly after touching someone who has a cold or something that has been touched by someone who has a cold.  Playthings touched by a child who has a cold should be washed before being put away. Cleaning surfaces with antiviral disinfectant may help prevent the spread of infection, and increasing interior humidity can reduce susceptibility.

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