Novel Coronavirus (COVID-19): Lessons Learned

Posted Posted in Brain Science, Continuing Education, Homestudy, Psychology

We are living in historic times.  A century from now, medical personnel, civil authorities, small business owners, corporate leaders, average investors, and everyday citizens will study the lessons learned from this pandemic.  Here are just a few of the ones we’ve learned already:

  • We should all plan and prepare for crisis, disaster, or catastrophe — especially in good, stable times.  Every family and business needs to build an emergency fund of 3-6 months minimum.
  • It’s important to listen to knowledgeable, wise people (not conspiracy theorists and people on social media).  However, even the most brilliant experts can be wrong.  Predictive models are not crystal balls.  There are unrecognized variables in nearly every situation.
  • Panic never solves problems.  If it did, we wouldn’t have any problems left.  The antidote to fear and panic is perspective.  Every day in the U.S., approximately 8,000 people die from multiple causes.  Each year, we lose between 30-40 thousand people from complications of the flu.  We do not shut down the nation.
  • Bureaucracies often do more harm than good.  Their function is largely based on outdated, territorial group-think, and they cannot change or adapt quickly.  Control freaks almost always create more problems than they solve.
  • All decisions have unintended consequences.Some of them can be disastrous. “Either/or” thinking is often a false choice.  Health, both physical and mental, is heavily dependent on financial stability.  The notion that we must choose between public health or a stable economy is a false choice.  They are mutually dependent.
  • Tunnel vision is usually a mistake.  Rigid adherence to long-held principles of epidemiology can crash an economy and engender other, less obvious medical problems like cardiac events, severe depression, anxiety, sexual abuse, physical abuse, emotional abuse, child abuse, drug abuse, alcohol abuse, suicide, violent crime, and eventually societal breakdown.   It takes discipline and wisdom to see the big picture.
  • “Better safe than sorry” is not always the right choice.It’s understandable in a crisis, but it rarely addresses the root of a problem.   We can protect our most vulnerable people with selective isolation and quarantine and still move forward with life.   Sometimes we must take reasonable risks.
  • Saving a buck by reducing housekeeping staff and standards of cleanliness, especially in public places, can be horribly costly in the long run.  Many hospitals, nursing homes, and medical offices are nowhere near as clean as they were 40 years ago.  Better personal and public hygiene will turn out to be a very good thing in the years to come.
  • Living and working in overcrowded, congested areas has been a problem throughout history.   Smallpox, plague, cholera, yellow fever, malaria, and tuberculosis have taken the lives of millions over the centuries.  Flu pandemics, in many cases, have been even worse.   Perhaps this pandemic will teach us all to be more respectful of everyone’s personal space.
  • We have more everyday heroes than we realize.Celebrities are not heroes.   Nurses, doctors, respiratory therapists, pharmacists, social workers, cafeteria workers, cooks, cleaning people, truck drivers, police officers, firefighters, EMTs, grocery-store clerks, bank tellers, delivery people, postal carriers, farmers, utility crews, and millions of everyday people doing their jobs and looking after others are heroes.  They need to be honored.
  • Politicians should not control the number of hospitals, ICU beds, ventilators, or CT scanners.   Hospitals cannot be run as if they were merely ugly hotels, focused almost solely on occupancy rates.  Surge capacity in beds, staffing, and equipment is essential.   Since 1976, we have seen a 16% decline in the number of ICU beds in our country.  Prudence matters.   It always has.   It always will.

This crisis will end.  We will learn more than we can possibly imagine.  For now, be calm, be kind, be patient.  Your actions may be more heroic than you realize.

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Mindfulness and Social Connections Soothe Anxiety and Boost Immunity

Posted Posted in Brain Science, Continuing Education, Elder Care, Psychology, Seminars

By Andrea D’Asaro, MBSR

It is normal to be scared and even paralyzed in the midst of so much uncertainty around the Coronavirus (COVID-19). That’s where simple mindfulness practices can help us stay grounded and connected despite recommendations for social distancing and work at home for many Americans. Deep breathing can slow anxiety, depression and keep our nervous system stable. Reaching out to others can boost our sense of connection, increase oxytocin (the love hormone), and maintain our immunity, which can fall when stress rises.

1. Come back to the moment with five mindful breaths

It’s easy to immerse oneself in the constant stream of on-line and often conflicting information. This can also increase our anxiety. With stress, the rational part of our brain can spin out of control into survival mode or fight, flight and freeze.

Whenever you notice yourself ruminating, worrying or feeling overwhelmed, try 5 mindful breaths:

Sit in a comfortable seat with your feet on the ground (lying down or standing are also options) breathe slowly in through the nose and out through the mouth to slow the nervous system, count five breaths with in and out, counting as one. Pause at the end and check your body and mind to see if anything is different. Continue to 10 or 20 breaths, as you wish. You may want to count your five breaths on your fingers, tracing each digit while taking one breath as an additional grounding with the body.

2. Reach out to friends and boost oxytocin

Social distancing is not emotional distancing! We can increase our happiness when we make real-time connections with others and bring ourselves a spurt of oxytocin, “the bonding hormone.” Try calling distant relatives, friends and others who may feel isolated at this time, using an old-school technology–the phone! When we take the step to converse with relatives or friends, we are boosting our own mood with activation of serotonin, according to research from Stanford University School of Medicine. Such social support is associated with a decreased risk of infection and reduced stress hormones, according to research from Carnegie Mellon University.

Many senior living communities are limiting visitors and keeping elders apart from each other to avoid spread of the virus. Older people, who may not use email or social media, are already at greater risk for depression or anxiety. We know that loneliness is deadly too. Real- time phone calls allow us to hear emotion in another voice and exchange concerns and pleasantries; it’s much more engaging than texting, according to research from the University of Wisconsin.

In this time of the elbow bump, we are advised to avoid hugging. No worries, the self-hug can also enhance the oxytocin, also called the “bonding hormone”.

Try the self-hug: Open your arms wide as you take a breath in, then cross them over your chest and you breathe out. Gently grasp your upper arm with the opposite hands and give yourself some kind squeezes. If it’s comfortable for you, close your eyes and bring to mind your personal “circle of caring.” Imagine the faces of those people or pets who care deeply for you (living or decreased) around you, smiling tenderly. Or envision your favorite happy place like a fireplace or a cozy bedroom. Remember to hold your hug for 20 seconds or more for the best benefits.

3. Strengthen self-care with mindfulness

Mindfulness is all about paying attention on purpose. This means observing how you feel, what your body and mind is craving and how you may best care for yourself. Instead of reaching for social media, a new video, or a less nutritious treat, consider the best way to nurture yourself–what you might recommend to a good friend.

During these anxiety-provoking times, remember the tried-and-true stress reduction strategies. Do you best to get adequate sleep, exercise regularly, spend time in nature and employ relaxation techniques on a daily basis.

Meeting a friend for a brisk walk in nature while bringing your attention back to the moment can bring multiple benefits. You might also consider slow mindful walking where you bring attention to each foot as it touches the ground. It’s helpful to say, “heel, ball, toe” as you notice the movement of the foot against the ground. Enjoy your slow walking and remember, there’s wrong way to bring yourself mindfulness.

Prioritizing these behaviors during the coronavirus crisis can go a long way toward bolstering your immune system and increasing your psychological well-being. Caring yourself in these ways may be a new habit to build over time, so start with one practice at a time and add on as you go, with kindness. Giving yourself kindness allows you to extend it to others who are struggling at this time.

Novel Coronavirus (COVID-19): Now What?

Posted Posted in Brain Science, Continuing Education, Homestudy, Psychology, Seminars, Webinars

By Mary O’Brien, M.D.

Everybody calm down.  Fear is spreading faster than the coronavirus at this point.  Financial markets are in turmoil over fear of a global economic slowdown caused by the virus.  Worries about lost productivity in China, reduced demand for oil and consumer goods, and disruption of travel, tech, and financial sectors have investors around the world hyperventilating.  The price of gold has reached its highest level in seven years, and the yield on the 10-year treasury is near record lows (1.37%) — both signals of a flight to safety.  Caffeine-toxic media types are nearly histrionic.  As is typically the case, the only two things missing from their breathless banter are knowledge and perspective.

Here are the facts, as of Monday evening, February 24, 2020:

  • The number of global cases of COVID-19 is around 79,000.
  • Virus-related deaths are at 2,600.  The overwhelming majority of deaths is still in China, but China is only reporting in-hospital deaths.
  • The current mortality rate is still around 2–3%.  The mortality rate of SARS was 10% and the mortality rate of seasonal flu is 0.1%.
  • COVID-19 is more readily transmissible than SARS (Severe Acute Respiratory Syndrome), but less deadly.
  • The incubation period is still considered to be 14 days.
  • Viral transmission of COVID-19 appears to occur through large droplets in respiratory secretions.  Both oral and anal swabs have detected virus (viral particles can be found in the GI tract).
  • Both SARS-CoV and MERS-CoV infect intrapulmonary epithelial cells more than cells of the upper airways. As a result, transmission occurs mostly from patients with recognized illness and usually not from patients with minimal symptoms.  COVID-19 seems to work the same way.
  • The most serious symptoms involve the lower respiratory tract and lungs, as opposed to upper airways. The resulting disease is now called “novel coronavirus-infected pneumonia” or NCIP (NEJM, Feb. 20, 2020).
  • So far the clinical breakdown of cases is fairly predictable:
    • 80% are mild illness (requiring little or no care).
    • 14% are of moderate severity.
    • 5% are critical (requiring mechanical ventilation).
    • 2–3% are fatal.
  • U.S. cases – 35 (nearly all travel-related).
  • Italy confirms 152 cases around Milan with more than 200 cases throughout the country. South Korea confirms 833 cases after testing over 20,000 people.
  • The most vulnerable patients are older individuals and those with chronic underlying illness. (CAD, CHF, COPD, DM, chronic kidney disease).

So now what?  We wait for more facts.  The headlines will reflect a frustrating level of paranoia for another 2–3 months — at least.  Universal precautions in medical settings, careful personal hygiene, and common sense are always prudent. `

Don’t panic.  Don’t dump your investments.  Don’t overdo the caffeine.  And one more thing:  Everybody, please calm down.

 

Solomon and Churchill

Posted Posted in Continuing Education, Homestudy, Psychology, Seminars, Webinars

By Mary O’Brien, M.D.

Here we are – midway through January 2020.  Have you crystallized your vision of vitality for 2020?  Has anyone noticed you have a new routine or attitude?  Have you already given up?  Don’t be too hard on yourself.  Between coping with severe weather and assorted viruses, many people are doing well to be functional right now.  Fortunately, it’s never too late to focus on the future and take corrective action.  After all, ships and planes rely on constant corrective adjustments of their navigational systems to reach their destinations.  How much more do fallible, fatigued, and sometimes fickle human beings need to take corrective action if we’re to achieve our destiny?

Now there’s a word that gets far too little attention in our culture.  Destiny.  No doubt there are those who would roll their eyes and dismiss the concept as delusional and arcane.  But I really believe each of us has a destiny or at least a potential destiny.  The key is recognizing it and taking steady action to achieve it.  Andrew Roberts, the acclaimed biographer, describes Winston Churchill’s profound sense of personal destiny in his book, Churchill: Walking with Destiny.  An intense spiritual experience at the age of 16 implanted in the young Churchill a deep conviction that he would be called upon to save London and indeed, Great Britain, at some point in his life.

Churchill had some major failures along the way, as all great people do.  And, despite stunning successes, he was the target of relentless, vicious criticism from political opponents, pretentious journalists, and even people in his own party.  Many of Churchill’s speeches were greeted with ridicule and contempt by his detractors.  This should not surprise us.  Nothing fosters criticism more predictably than jealousy.  Those speeches would later be hailed as some of the most inspiring rhetoric in history.  Winston Churchill endured massive criticism at nearly every turn, but his sense of destiny allowed him to persevere.

The concept of destiny infuses the wisdom of the ages. Several thousand years ago, Solomon wrote a sentence in Proverbs that should be noted by individuals and nations alike.  He wrote, “Where there is no vision, the people perish.” Solomon was onto one of the great secrets of the universe.  Can there be much doubt that communism has largely collapsed because it tried to suppress the vision of its people?  Would inner city darkness and despair exist if people pursued a vision of future success?  Would many of us wallow in depression for long if a vision of great destiny propelled us forward?

If you were less than thrilled with the accomplishments and personal progress you made last year, make a change.  Change whatever isn’t working in your life.  Of course, that means changing the way you think.  It means daring to dream and develop a vision for the future.  Don’t dwell on your circumstances, change them.

The vision to see, the faith to believe, and the will to work can bring your destiny within reach.  Solomon and Churchill were onto something.  The question is, are we?

A Whole New Decade

Posted Posted in Brain Science, Continuing Education, Psychology, Seminars, Webinars

By Mary O’Brien, M.D.

Are you making New Year’s resolutions?  Are you worried about your weight or waistline?  The vast majority of New Year’s resolutions involve weight loss.  Unfortunately, most of those resolutions will fall by the wayside within the next few weeks.  There is a better approach.

This year, as we begin a whole new decade, it might be better to create a vision of vitality.  Vitality is the state of being strong, active, and energetic.  It’s a crucial factor in living a truly good life and a major part of success.  The thought of merely cutting calories is not exactly inspiring.  And a number on the scale will not magically confer health or happiness — at least not for long.  Sooner or later assorted stresses can undermine the healthiest intentions.  That’s called life on Planet Earth.  Most of us realize that, and yet, nearly all of us need a little jump start now and then.

Sustained success requires clarity of purpose, a burning desire, and firm resolve. Some sort of change will be necessary.  If you always do what you’ve always done, you’ll get what you’ve always gotten.  A couple of questions are in order:

  1. How badly do you want it?
  2. What sacrifices are you willing to make?

Pursuing vitality in life may not come naturally, and we all have different challenges.  The slightest lack of discipline begins to affect your psyche.  However, a few simple disciplines practiced every day lead to success.  As motivational speaker and writer Jim Rohn has said, “The price is easy if the promise is clear.”

So what would you be willing to do in exchange for greater vitality?  Could you be more active, eat more healthfully, or get more sleep?  Perhaps you need more time outdoors, greater inspiration at work, or a captivating, creative endeavor.  Does your family, personal, or social life need more attention?  Is your spiritual life what it could be?  Success without fulfillment is tantamount to failure.

Perhaps over the next few days a little self-assessment would be helpful.  Then create a vision of your future vitality.  Write it down in detail — and begin. Vitality:  The state of being strong, active, and energetic.  It’s not a bad way to begin a whole new decade.

Not A Bad Idea

Posted Posted in Brain Science, Continuing Education, Homestudy, Psychology, Seminars, Webinars

By Mary O’Brien, M.D.

It starts early.  It starts much too early. “Christmas in July” sales morph into “Black Friday Before Black Friday” sales.  Christmas decorations, promotions, and music assault us even before the Halloween candy appears.  What happened to all that preaching about mindfulness and living in the moment?  Ah, anything for a buck!

Some of us are old enough to remember Advent.  The centuries-old tradition of prayerful discipline during the four weeks leading up to Christmas has all but disappeared.  Advent calendars now are little more than an excuse to indulge in fancy chocolates or even beauty products for each day in December.  What stupendous marketing! We’ve learned how to turn self-indulgence into virtue.

The word “advent” comes from the Latin word “adventus,” or arrival.  It signifies the arrival of a notable person, thing, or event.  The original Advent calendars involved a simple numbered flap which opened to reveal a religious image related to the Christmas story.  But we live in a consumer-driven society.  The Advent practice only goes so far.  Why look at a religious image when you can stuff yourself with candy or try a new beauty product day by day?

Chocolates and beauty products are great, but they are not the reason for Advent or Christmas.  The more important something is, the more preparation and anticipation it deserves.  Spiritual events require spiritual preparation.  And since human beings are not mere blobs of protoplasm, we need to balance body, mind, and spirit.

Every sincere religion in the world promotes some form of physical discipline as a path to spiritual growth.  Periodic fasting can be beneficial for overall health (in medically stable people). There’s even evidence that refraining from eating between dinner and “breakfast” stimulates growth hormone levels and facilitates weight loss.

Fasting or abstaining as a spiritual discipline need not be limited to food. Consider how you feel (or behave) when deprived of your devices, TV, or electricity for an hour.  Advent disciplines can involve “giving up” anything from eating out, to sugar, to alcohol, to shopping.  In years gone by, people would save the money they didn’t spend on personal indulgences and give it to the needy.  Even in a strong economy there are plenty of people in need.

This year, Hanukkah and Christmas occur in the same week.  Family celebrations, festivities, and fun await millions.  Regardless of theology, several weeks of thoughtful spiritual and physical discipline beforehand will make the main event that much more marvelous.  Besides, there are only so many practices that can help you lose weight and save money at the same time.  Advent: It’s not a bad idea.

How To Get Back To Civility

Posted Posted in Brain Science, Continuing Education, Homestudy, Psychology, Seminars, Webinars

By Mary O’Brien, M.D.

We all have blind spots about ourselves, but sometimes our self-image can border on delusional.  Seventy-eight percent of people polled believe that there has been a decline in civility during the past decade.  The other 22% were probably in a medically-induced coma.

The real shocker comes next.  Ninety-nine percent of people believe their own level of civility has remained constant.  So who are all those rude people out there?  Perhaps a brief self-assessment is in order.

Do you remember the last time you:

  • Sent a thank-you note (a real handwritten one)?
  • Let someone go ahead of you in a checkout line?
  • Waived another driver ahead of you in busy traffic?
  • Held a door open for someone else? (That’s called manners, not chauvinism.)
  • Offered to help someone struggling with boxes, bags, or packages?
  • Helped someone get his or her luggage in the overhead compartment of an airplane?
  • Helped an older patient in and out of a chair (as opposed to merely standing there and watching him or her struggle)?

There are countless other examples, especially in this age of narcissism.  Self-absorption is Cause No. 1 of the four major causes of rudeness.  This time of year, people talk about flu epidemics.  But “me, myself, and I syndrome” is a year-round epidemic.  Simply being unaware of other people or their needs is ubiquitous behavior these days.  It speaks to a failure of parenting and education.

That leads to Cause No. 2 of rudeness:  ignorance.  Manners and civility need to be taught, and no participation trophies are not awarded.  Civility is its own reward.

Cause No. 3 of rudeness is lack of character.  We don’t speak much about someone’s character these days.  It’s a serious flaw in our culture.  Character determines how any one of us behaves when no one is watching.  It’s our default mode of behavior.  Eric Hoffer said, “Rudeness is the weak man’s imitation of strength.”  It takes a strong person to be kind, gentle, patient, or polite.

Cause No. 4 of rudeness is simply being in a hurry.  It’s curious, but can you even imagine the spiritual giants of the ages being in a rush?  Granted, people like Moses, Jesus, and Buddha lived a long time ago, but no one could possibly picture their being frantic and frenetic.  As Emerson wrote, “Manners require time, as nothing is more vulgar than haste.”

Self-absorption, ignorance, lack of character, and haste.  These are the major causes of rudeness.  Maybe we could start to “reverse engineer” our way back to civility.  It would surely be worth the effort.

All the Little Warning Signs

Posted Posted in Brain Science, Continuing Education, Elder Care, Homestudy, Psychology, Seminars, Webinars

By Mary O’Brien, M.D.

A friend of mine died last week from cancer. She was 52 years old.  Few people knew how seriously ill she was.  She didn’t want pity.  She didn’t even want sympathy.  The only thing she wanted was exuberance in life and dignity in death.  She successfully achieved both.

Sitting in the back of the church and listening to her eulogy, I wondered how many people struggle silently with serious illness and stress.  I suspect every one of us knows people who, despite their poise and polish, suffer tremendous personal anguish that remains hidden from the world.  They function day to day scarcely skipping a beat.  They’re the first ones to lend a hand when someone else is in a jam and they hardly ever grumble or gripe.  Other folks tend to dump extra work in their laps because they’re so good-natured and conscientious.

Then one day, overwhelmed by stress, illness, depression, or exhaustion, these selfless stoics collapse.  Nearly everyone in their sphere of influence is shocked because they failed to notice all the little warning signs.  Somehow it was so easy to overlook the growing fatigue, the waning enthusiasm, or the uncharacteristic irritability.  I’d like to say that doctors are usually expert at recognizing the subtle signs of serious illness and stress.  But the truth is, most of us are not.  Doctors, by and large, are so accustomed to chronic exhaustion in their own lives, they often overlook it completely in others.  There is no laboratory test for stress and no scan will screen for exhaustion.  It takes time and concern and insight to detect the subtle signs of serious stress.  And while many of us may be interested in the well-being of others, few of us take the time to develop true insight into other people’s problems.

Maybe if we all slowed down long enough to notice a friend’s fatigue or a colleague’s quiet mood, we could do something helpful before it is too late.  Maybe if we stopped placing so many unreasonable demands on one another, we wouldn’t be plagued by chronic fatigue and burnout.  Maybe if we made an effort to be more friendly and flexible in our daily encounters, folks would feel free to ask for help when they need it.

It would be wonderful if teachers and preachers and bosses and bureaucrats would promote empathy and compassion as much as they promote rules and regulations.  But until patience and kindness work their way into the culture’s curricula, we’ll have to rely on the insight of individuals.

Do you know someone who’s overwhelmed, worn out, dejected, or depressed?  Be gentle with him or her.  Cut such people some slack.  They may be up against serious stress or illness.  Be kind to them and to everyone you encounter today.  You may not have the chance to be kind to them tomorrow.

Some Timeless Advice

Posted Posted in Brain Science, Continuing Education, Homestudy, Psychology, Seminars, Webinars

By Mary O’Brien, M.D.

How’s your bank balance doing these days?  More importantly, how’s your emotional balance doing?  Incessant political nastiness, market swoons, natural disasters, urban decline, violent crime, geo-political tensions, ever-expanding congestion, traffic, and professional pressures are weighing on all of us.  And we haven’t even mentioned the personal stresses of illness, family strife, teenage traumas, aging parents, and relationship struggles.  At least there doesn’t seem to be a massive asteroid threatening our existence.  That was a joke.

Most of us have learned that taking only withdrawals from a bank account does not work well.  Sooner or later we need to make some deposits.  The same principle applies to our emotional balance.  The stresses we face in everyday life represent withdrawals from our emotional reserve.  We need to balance those withdrawals with some regular deposits.  And that, unfortunately, is not always so easy or obvious.

Emotional depletion has consequences.  Eventually it can compromise our immune, neuroendocrine, and cardiovascular systems.  Since millions of us are experiencing emotional depletion, we need to be intentional about restoring our emotional account balance.  Here are a few ideas:

  • Take a deep breath and slow down long enough to realize you’re running on empty.
  • Disconnect from your devices, social media, and TV for several hours. If this causes undue stress, you know you’re emotionally depleted.
  • Spend at least 15-20 minutes each day in a natural setting. Remember nature?
  • Let go of anger, resentment, and criticism. No one can experience love, joy, or peace when he or she is consumed with negative thoughts and emotions.
  • Do something physical and useful. Clean out a closet, spruce up the yard, bake cookies, wash the car.  As long as it gets you up and moving and has tangible results (not staring at a screen), it will help.
  • Call or visit with a sympathetic person who will truly listen and encourage you. Texting doesn’t count.
  • Do something thoughtful and unexpected for another person.
  • Forgive everyone.

If all else fails, remember some timeless advice from Abraham Lincoln, “This too shall pass.”  It always does.

Passport to Health? Maybe not…

Posted Posted in Brain Science, Continuing Education, Elder Care, Homestudy, Pain, Psychology

By Mary O’Brien, M.D.

“It relieves headaches, insomnia, anxiety, depression, arthritis, fibromyalgia, and pain of all kinds.” Sounds great. Unfortunately, this is merely an excerpt from an ad for CBD oil. CBD stands for cannabidiol, a non-psychoactive molecule that has some documented anti-oxidant, anti-inflammatory, and anxiolytic properties. CBD products and stores are popping up all over the country. Even the business networks are covering possible investment opportunities. CBD products now include teas, tinctures, topical creams, pills, oral solutions, sprays, candies, cookies, gummies, chocolates, and Italian ice. No kidding.

The vast majority of studies on CBD are preclinical, animal studies (mostly rats). Trying to extrapolate research findings from rats to humans is not medically sound. It can also be downright dangerous. But many people have a stunning ability to believe what they want to believe.

We live in an age of narrative. The narrative about far too many topics is carefully crafted by self-proclaimed elites in the media, the entertainment industry, the political realm, and the academic world. Money is a critical factor in forming a narrative, but equally vital is the perception of being “cool.” Being perceived as “cool” is of the utmost importance to a staggering number of people. The really “cool” people don’t even realize they’re cool because they’re too busy pursuing truth and genuine accomplishment.

When it comes to a fad like CBD, the prudent people are open-minded but cautious. Centuries of experience in numerous cultures should have taught us something about con-artists and snake oil. Some of our grandmothers were certain that a dose of castor oil every week would cure anything. Millions of people in Asia still believe the rhinoceros horn can heal everything from impotence to cancer. And despite all our science, people still spend ridiculous sums of money on ground apricot pits and crystals in place of chemotherapy.

The actual pharmacologic effects of CBD products are still being evaluated. Standardization, purity of product, dosing, absorption, bioavailability, half-life, potential contraindications, adverse effects, and drug-drug interactions need to be elucidated -– in people, not rats.

Until then, be careful. Snake oil salesmen abound, and they’ll probably seem really “cool.” Buyer beware. CBD Italian ice is likely not your passport to health.

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