Managing Holiday Stress

Posted on Posted in Continuing Education, Homestudy, Nutrition, Psychology

They’re coming: Thanksgiving; Hanukkah; Christmas; and New Year. Weeks of potential, nonstop stress are right around the corner. And, all of that is followed by seemingly endless bills, three or four months of miserable weather, and tax season. What could be better? Medically speaking, all of this can lead to a perfect storm of illness. Too much stress and too little sleep can set the stage for everything from colds, flu, and pneumonia, to hypertension, heart disease, and diabetes out of control. The discussion about holiday stress aggravating anxiety and depression could fill a book.

The reality is difficult to deny. During this wonderful but weird time, millions of people will go places they really don’t want to go. They will do things they really don’t want to do. And, in many cases, they will visit people they don’t even like. This is not necessary. Too many activities, too much chaos, noise, and stress, not to mention too many calories and too little sleep, combine to create a physiologic disaster. Before the madness begins, a few principles of prevention may help:

  • Minimize caffeine and alcohol. Alcohol is loaded with empty calories and will disrupt normal sleep architecture.
  • Avoid holiday exhaustion. It’s okay to decline invitations. Try not to go out two nights in a row and schedule some quiet time instead.
  • Make time for exercise. It will help dissipate stress, boost energy, and facilitate better sleep.
  • Avoid unrealistic expectations. Don’t try to recreate a Norman Rockwell scene. It puts too much pressure on everyone.
  •  Aim for a few lovely memories—not a credit card extravaganza. Overspending is a major contributor to holiday stress.
  • Be prepared to overlook a lot. Everyone has annoying relatives. We can’t control what they say or do, but we can control our response to it. Don’t let a thoughtless remark ruin the day for everyone.

In short, managing holiday stress involves a healthy dose of common sense. Don’t overeat, overindulge, overreact, or overspend. Do try to have a healthy routine with a little less food, a lot less chaos, and for more rest. That’s a good plan for any time of the year.webinarsSeminars-CTA

 

Binge Eating Disorder

Posted on Posted in Brain Science, Continuing Education, Nutrition, Seminars, Webinars

binge-eatingBinge eating disorder is an illness that resembles bulimia nervosa. Like bulimia, the disorder is characterized by episodes of uncontrolled eating or binging—occurring, on average, at least once a week for three months, according to DSM-5 (“Diagnostic and Statistical Manual, ” version 5).  However, binge eating disorder differs from bulimia because its sufferers do not purge their bodies of excess food.

Individuals with binge eating disorder feel that they lose control of themselves when eating. While they commonly eat fewer meals than people without eating disorders, when they do eat, they eat rapidly, consuming large quantities of food.  They do not stop until they are uncomfortably full. When binging, they typically do so alone because of feeling embarrassed by how much they are eating.  They tend to feel disgusted with themselves, depressed, or very guilty afterward. Usually, they have more difficulty losing weight and keeping it off than do people with other serious weight problems. Most people with the disorder are obese and have a history of weight fluctuations.

Binge eating disorder is found in about two percent of the general population—more often in women than men. Recent research shows that binge eating disorder occurs in about 30 percent of people participating in medically-supervised, weight-control programs.

Because people with binge eating disorder are usually overweight, they are prone to the serious medical problems associated with obesity, such as high cholesterol, high blood pressure, and diabetes. Obese individuals also have a higher risk for gallbladder disease, heart disease, and some types of cancer. Research at the National Institutes of Health and elsewhere has shown that individuals with binge eating disorder have high rates of co-occurring psychiatric illnesses, especially depression.

Cognitive behavioral therapy and interpersonal therapy are the treatments found to produce the greatest degree of remission in patients with binge eating disorder.  These therapies result in improvements in specific eating disorder psychopathology and associated psychiatric problems, such as depression and psychosocial functioning (Wilson, 2011).

Epidemiology of Eating Disorders

 Estimates of the incidence or prevalence of eating disorders vary depending on the sampling and assessment methods.

  • An estimated five million Americans suffer from eating disorders at any given time, including approximately five percent of women and less than one percent of men.  The disorders include anorexia nervosa, bulimia nervosa, and binge eating disorder.
  • Estimates of the male-female prevalence ratio range from 1:5 to 1:1 (although 19 to 30 percent of younger patient populations with anorexia nervosa are male).
  • The reported lifetime prevalence of anorexia nervosa among women has ranged from 0.5 percent for narrowly defined cases to four percent for more broadly defined cases of anorexia nervosa.
  • Estimates of the lifetime prevalence of bulimia nervosa among women have ranged from 1.1 to 4.2 percent. Some studies suggest that the prevalence of bulimia nervosa in the United States may have decreased slightly in recent years.
  • An estimated 85 percent of eating disorders have their onset during adolescence.
  • Approximately 5 to 1.0 percent of adolescents suffer from anorexia nervosa and one to five percent suffer from bulimia nervosa. Female college students are at highest risk of the latter.
  • The prevalence of anorexia nervosa and bulimia nervosa in children and younger adolescents is unknown.
  • While eating disorders have generally been recognized as affecting a narrow population of Caucasian adolescent or adult young women from developed Western countries, in recent years, data are steadily accumulating to document that:
  1. eating disorders have become more common in pre-pubertal children and women in middle and late adulthood in such countries.
  2. ethnic and racial minority groups in these countries are vulnerable to eating disorders.
  3. there is nothing uniquely “Western” about eating disorders, which are a global health problem (Pike et al, 2013).

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Anaphylaxis: Always an Emergency

Posted on Posted in Continuing Education, Homestudy, Nutrition, Seminars, Webinars

anaAbout 30 of every 100,000 people experience food-induced anaphylaxis.  An anaphylactic reaction should always be considered a medical emergency. Symptoms generally appear as soon as someone who is hypersensitive swallows a food allergen. The symptoms may not appear until up to four hours after exposure. How swiftly an anaphylactic reaction begins and how severe it becomes depends on:

  • the sensitivity of an individual to the allergen.
  • the amount of allergen swallowed.
  • how many different food allergens were consumed.
  • food preparation.
  • precipitating medical conditions.

An anaphylactic reaction may begin with tingling, itching, or a metallic taste in the mouth. Even the mildest symptoms can become severe within a short time. Anaphylactic reactions can go on for hours. They may include:

  • wheezing and other breathing problems.
  • swelling of the mouth and throat.
  • cramps and nausea.
  • rapid pulse and sudden drop in blood pressure.
  • hives and flushing.
  • itching of the palms of the hands and the soles of the feet.
  • loss of consciousness.

Anaphylaxis can be a biphasic reaction: New, more severe symptoms sometimes appear as long as two to six hours after the initial wave of symptoms has receded. These recurring symptoms often involve the respiratory system and can be deadly.

Peanuts and tree nuts are the foods most likely to cause severe food-allergic reactions. The other most common causes of anaphylaxis attributed to food allergies are:

  • shellfish
  • fish
  • milk
  • eggs

People who have asthma and food allergies are thought to have a greater than average risk of developing a food-allergic anaphylactic reaction. Having experienced one or more severe allergic reactions also increases the likelihood that an individual will have an anaphylactic reaction in the future.

The risk of fatal anaphylactic reaction is greatest among adolescents who have asthma and allergies to peanuts and tree nuts but disregard early food allergy symptoms and do not have ready access to epinephrine. Used to halt the progress of an anaphylactic reaction and reverse its symptoms, this drug is self-administered by injection. Epinephrine is often prescribed for individuals with a history of severe allergic reaction

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Understanding Blood Pressure

Posted on Posted in Continuing Education, Homestudy, Nutrition, Seminars, Webinars

blood-pressure-monitor-350930_640By Dr. Mary O’Brien MD

Blood pressure (BP) is a measurement of the force exerted against the walls of the arteries as the heart pumps blood to all the tissues and organs of the body. The more blood the heart pumps and the narrower the arteries, the higher the blood pressure.

BP is measured using an inflatable arm cuff and a pressure gauge. The reading is given in millimeters of mercury (mmHg) and includes two numbers: an upper number (systolic pressure) that reflects the pressure in the arteries when the heart contracts and pumps blood into the arteries [comma deleted] and a lower number (diastolic pressure) that is a measure of the pressure in the arteries as the heart relaxes after contraction (between beats).

When BP readings are found to be consistently elevated, a diagnosis of high blood pressure (hypertension) can be made. Chronic hypertension increases the risk of serious health problems, including heart attack, heart failure, kidney failure, and stroke. These complications are often referred to as end-organ damage because damage to these organs is the end result of long-standing hypertension.       Unfortunately, hypertension may be undetected for many years because it is typically slow to develop — and quite often asymptomatic. It has been estimated that one out of every five U.S. adults with high BP does not know that she has it.

The American Heart Association (AHA) estimates that hypertension affects approximately one in three adults in the United States. However, the prevalence of elevated BP that is either below the cut-off point for hypertension or undetected is much higher. For example, in 2012, 31 percent of all U.S. adults aged 18 years and older were hypertensive, and an additional 31 percent had pre-hypertension (blood pressure that is higher than normal but not yet in the high BP range).

Moreover, among individuals with hypertension, only about half (47 percent) have their condition under control even though seven in 10 hypertensive U.S. adults use medication to treat the condition.  These numbers are consistent with the most recent National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey.

Despite recent advances in the medical treatment of hypertension, and the introduction of public health campaigns designed to increase awareness of this condition, hypertension remains a significant public health problem in the United States. Our home-study course will address the definition, symptoms, causes, risk factors, complications, and treatment options for hypertension. Information about these components can provide the necessary tools to reduce the prevalence of hypertension and related health problems.

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Chocolate: Friend or Foe?

Posted on Posted in Continuing Education, Homestudy, Nutrition, Webinars

chocolate-1220655_640By Mary O’Brien, M.D.

Research suggests that chocolate is the most widely craved food. There is a special questionnaire designed with the sole purpose of assessing chocolate cravings. While only 15 percent of men report craving chocolate, approximately 45 percent of women do, and 75 percent of the women indicated that only chocolate would satisfy their food craving. Explanations of why chocolate is desired by so many are numerous and include the possibility that chocolate is addictive, replaces deficient nutrients,  triggers the release of mood-altering chemicals, and  stimulates the pleasure centers in the brain.

The desire for chocolate appears to be increased by visual cues, such as looking at pictures of chocolate  or holding a chocolate bar.  Persons who have been subjected to dietary restriction prior to encountering these cues are more likely to experience cravings combined with feelings of guilt, anxiety, and depression. Findings have demonstrated that exercise is effective in reducing chocolate cravings in persons exposed to chocolate cues.  Exercise, by reducing stress, may also be effective.

While the reasons behind chocolate cravings may be unclear, the fact that chocolate is a highly desired food is certain. This raises the question of whether giving in to the chocolate urge is harmful. One could certainly argue that a daily dose of chocolate could add to an already precarious calorie balance in some people — or that responding to the craving is establishing a habitual pattern that could manifest in other, more deleterious cravings.

However, if unsweetened chocolate is viewed strictly from a nutritional point of view, it can be described as a food consisting of saturated (palmitic and stearic) and monounsaturated (oleic) fats.  Chocolate can also be described as containing starchy and fibrous carbohydrates that have very few simple sugars and few flavonoid antioxidants.  Chocolate has several minerals, including magnesium, calcium, iron, zinc, copper, potassium, and manganese.  Chocolate has vitamins A, B-1, B-2, B-3, C, E , and pantothenic acid.  Chocolate has roughly 150 kilocalories per ounce. Unfortunately, the preferred form of chocolate for most people is not the unsweetened but the sweetened form, in which the amount of fats, sugars, and calories is increased.

Chocolate also contains the stimulants theobromine and caffeine.  Chocolate has the hormone precursors phenylethylamine and tryptophan, which are thought to have mildly anti-depressant effects. These chemicals are present naturally in the cocoa bean from which chocolate is derived. Cocoa products also contain pharmacological substances such as n-acetylethanolamines that have some chemical similarities to cannabis (marijuana), and compounds that stimulate the brain to release an opiate-like substance called anandamide. Despite the scary-sounding nature of these latter two compounds, the pleasurable effects of cocoa and chocolate do not appear to stem from their drug-like effects, but from the hedonic reaction of the mouth to the feel and smell of the combined fat and sugar. For example, when chocolate-cravers were given cocoa capsules they reported no satisfaction at all.

The moral of the chocolate story, like that of many other guilty pleasures in life, is that while a little is possibly acceptable and can even give a boost to physical and emotional health, too much pushes the pendulum in the other direction. The oft-quoted statement in this regard is “moderation in all things,” but perhaps we should also keep in mind the words of William Somerset Maugham: “Excess on occasion is exhilarating. It prevents moderation from acquiring the deadening effect of a habit.”

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Cuisine for the Brain

Posted on Posted in Brain Science, Continuing Education, Homestudy, Nutrition

carrot-1085063_640By Laura Pawlak, PhD, RD emeritus

What weighs a mere four pounds and has a workload that demands 20 percent of all the oxygen inhaled?  Answer:  the human brain.

As technology opens the door to the unique metabolic functions of the brain, scientists are investigating the nutrients required to keep mentally sharp over the decades.

With dementia rising at an alarming rate — along with obesity, diabetes, heart disease, and other ailments — let’s eat with purpose, using sound, nutrition-related science applicable to the brain and the rest of the body.

Starting with the belief that what we eat plays a significant role in determining who gets dementia, Martha Clare Morris, Ph.D. and colleagues developed the MIND Diet as an intervention against the most common cause of neurodegeneration:  Alzheimer’s disease.

The work of Morris and her colleagues is based on research completed at Rush Medical University in Chicago, Illinois.  The term “MIND” is an acronym for Mediterranean-DASH Intervention for Neurodegenerative Delay.

The DASH diet plan is based on research sponsored by the U.S. National Institutes of Health.  The plan was developed to lower blood pressure without the use of medication.

The Mediterranean and DASH diets are models of healthy eating for the body.  The Morris team chose foods that improve brain function significantly and also added to overall body wellness.

Adherence to the MIND diet may lower the risk of Alzheimer’s disease by as much as 53%, offering more protection for the brain than any other dietary regimen.

The MIND cuisine lists 10 brain-healthy food groups (green leafy vegetables, other vegetables, nuts, berries, beans, whole grains, fish, poultry, olive oil, and wine).  The plan limits consumption of five brain-unhealthy food groups (red meats, butter/stick margarine, cheese, pastries/sweets, and fried or fast food).

The plan suggests a minimum of three servings of whole grains, a salad, and one other vegetable every day — along with a glass of wine.  For snacks, add a variety of nuts.  Berries are the only fruits recommended.

Specifically, blueberries are noted as the powerful protectors of the brain.  Strawberries are a second choice for good cognitive function.

Use Google and enter the term “MIND Diet” for daily guidelines and recipes of a cuisine designed to maximize brain function while providing healthy foods for the rest of the body as well.


Dr. Laura Pawlak (Ph.D., R.D. emerita) is a world-renown biochemist and dietitian emerita.  She is the author of many scientific publications and has written such best-selling books as “The Hungry Brain,” “Life Without Diets,” and “Stop Gaining Weight.”  On the subjects of nutrition and brain science, she gives talks internationally.


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Obesity and Heart Disease

Posted on Posted in Continuing Education, Homestudy, Nutrition

thick-373064_640By Dr. Mary O’Brien MD

Longitudinal studies clearly indicate that obesity predicts coronary atherosclerosis in men and in women. Hypertension, a leading cause of atherosclerosis, is approximately three times more common in obese individuals than in those who are of normal weight or less than normal weight.

Body mass index (BMI) is one of the most effective ways to measure obesity. Some studies show that a BMI that is between 25 and 30 confers as much as a 70 percent increased risk of coronary heart disease.

However, a high BMI may not entirely predict heart disease risk. In women, a BMI near 30 may still not be of major concern when the increase in fat tissue is distributed over the hips and not the abdomen.  Accumulating evidence indicates that an increased waist circumference, or waist-to-hip ratio (WHR), predicts complications and mortality from obesity.

Weight-reduction seems to be effective in reducing risks of coronary heart disease (CHD) and congestive heart failure (CHF), potentially preventing heart disease in obese patients. Evidence indicates that, for obese patients, a reduction of only five percent to 10 percent of body weight improves lipid profiles, insulin sensitivity, and endothelial function.  Such a reduction also reduces thrombosis and inflammatory markers.

Maintaining a BMI of less than 25 throughout adult life is a good strategy to reduce the risk of heart disease. For most patients with a BMI between 25 and 30, lifestyle changes in diet and exercise are appropriate.

Restricting consumption of fat to less than 30 percent of total calories should be recommended, because low-fat diets also promote weight reduction. Physical training programs can reduce body mass and help bring about gradual weight loss.

Medical therapy may be necessary in patients with a BMI higher than 30. However, the safety of long-term use of anti-obesity medications has not been established. When the BMI falls within the range of 35 to 40 (or above), bariatric surgery may be an option. Unfortunately, less than five percent of patients are able to maintain their reduced weight four years after surgery. Thus, the prevention of obesity with diet and regular physical activity appears to be the most dependable way to maintain cardiovascular health.

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Food, Calcium, and Bone Health

Posted on Posted in Continuing Education, Elder Care, Homestudy, Nutrition

CalciumFoods_ML1512_ts481492527By Barbara Boughton

Once a woman hits menopause, getting enough calcium for bone health becomes a major concern. Women over age 60 are prone to osteoporosis — and the spinal, hip, and knee fractures that osteoporosis can bring. Yet adequate dietary calcium can help protect people from osteoporosis.  Taking calcium supplements can help as well.

It’s not just menopausal women who should be concerned about getting enough calcium. As consumption of sugary soft drinks has risen among children and teenagers, intake of milk has also declined. But children and teenagers who are able to eat and drink enough calcium-enriched foods—as well as take in sufficient protein during meals—benefit from improved skeletal growth and bone mass. In fact, studies show that children who avoid, for prolonged periods, drinking calcium-containing milk have an almost three-fold higher risk for fracture than age-matched birth cohorts.

Dairy products are considered to be the easiest and cheapest sources of dietary calcium. Most people should have three to four servings of milk products daily in order to improve bone health and prevent osteoporosis. Studies have estimated that increasing dairy intake to three to four servings per day can reduce osteoporosis-related healthcare costs in the U.S. by $3.5 billion per year.

As well as calcium, it’s important to get enough calcium to enhance calcium absorption. What are your calcium and vitamin D requirements? Adults up to age 50 should get 1,000 mg of calcium and 200 International Units (IUs) of Vitamin D. Those over age 50, should intake at least 1,200 mg of calcium and 400 to 600 IUs of vitamin D each day.

Among foods with calcium, some are better than others for bone health. Yogurt is one of the best. It contains a hefty dose of calcium (415 mg per serving of plain, low-fat or non-fat per eight-ounce serving).  Many varieties of yogurt are also fortified with vitamin D. Some brands of fat-free, plain yogurt contain 30 percent of the adult daily requirements for calcium and 20 percent of the adult daily requirements for vitamin D. Although protein-packed Greek yogurts are popular right now—because of their reputed health benefits—they are less useful than other yogurt types for staving off osteoporosis. Greek yogurts contain less calcium than other types of yogurt and very little vitamin D.

Besides dairy products — such as low-fat and non-fat milk, yogurt, and cheese — there are other foods that are good for your bones. Canned sardines and salmon are rich sources of calcium, and fatty fish such as salmon, mackerel, tuna, and sardines are also replete with vitamin D. Some vegetables contain a generous amount of calcium, including collard greens, turnip greens, kale, okra, Chinese cabbage, dandelion greens, mustard greens, and broccoli. Foods fortified with calcium and vitamin D—such as some juices, breakfast foods, soy milk, rice milk, cereals, and breads—can also add to the health of your bones.

The foods with the highest amounts of calcium are:  plain low-fat yogurt; calcium-fortified orange juice; low-fat fruit yogurt; skim mozzarella cheese and cheddar cheese; canned sardines; reduced and nonfat milk; tofu made with calcium sulfate; fortified breakfast drinks; and calcium-fortified cereals. Vegetables that are the richest sources of calcium include turnip greens, kale, and Chinese cabbage. For those who are lactose-intolerant, eight ounces of calcium-fortified soy milk can have from 80 mg to 500 mg of calcium.  Rice and almond calcium-fortified beverages can be good sources of calcium, too. To find out how much calcium is in these drinks, check the nutrition label on the back of these products at the grocery store.

If you want to eat for bone health, there are also some foods you should avoid. Heavy alcohol drinking (more than two drinks per day) can lead to bone loss, as can drinking more than three cups of coffee per day. Drinks high in caffeine, including coffee, tea, and caffeinated soft drinks, decrease calcium absorption and contributes to bone loss. Sodas also make it harder for the body to absorb calcium. Salty foods cause your body to lose calcium, too. To reduce the sodium in your diet, limit processed foods, canned foods, and salt added to the foods you eat each day. Aim for 2,400 mg or fewer mg of sodium per day.

Although beans contain calcium, they also are high in substances called phytates that interfere with your ability to absorb calcium. To reduce the phytate level in beans, soak them in water for several hours and cook them in fresh water. Wheat bran also contain high levels of phytates, which prevent your body from absorbing calcium. The phytates in wheat bran not only prevent the absorption of calcium in wheat bran but also prevent the absorption of calcium in foods eaten at the same time. For example, if you have milk and 100 percent wheat bran cereal together, your body can absorb some, but not all, of the calcium from the milk. The wheat bran in other foods like breads, however, is much less concentrated and unlikely to have a noticeable impact on calcium absorption.

Some vegetables with calcium can also contain ingredients called oxalates. Oxalates make it more difficult for you to absorb the calcium in vegetables. Foods with both calcium and oxalates include spinach, rhubarb, and beet greens.

As you can see, getting the right kind of calcium and the right amount of calcium from foods are not a simple matter. Yet it’s well worth the effort, since it will improve your bone health and strength—and may reduce your need for supplements.

  1. Food and Your Bones. Fact sheet. National Osteoporosis Foundation.
  2. Dietary Supplement Fact Sheet: Calcium. National Institutes of Health.
  3. Calcium: An Important Nutrient that Builds Bones. Fact Sheet. Osteoporosis Canada.
  4. Calcium, Nutrition and Bone Health. Fact Sheet. American Academy of Orthopedic Surgeons. aaos.org.
  5. Rizzoli, R. Dairy products, yogurts and bone health. Am J Clin. 2014; 99 (suppl): 1256S-62S.

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Is The Paleo Diet Healty? Arguments Against The Paleo Diet

Posted on Posted in Continuing Education, Homestudy, Nutrition

sandwich-498379_640By Barbara Boughton

It’s not surprising that the Paleo diet has health benefits that derive from weight loss, according to its critics. Any diet that restricts calories will lead to weight loss—no matter if it eliminates some food groups as in the Paleo diet, or if it replaces processed foods and sweets with healthy vegetables, lean proteins, and whole grains.

The more important question is whether low-carb weight loss plans, such as the Paleo diet, can result in long-term weight loss and health benefits. It’s difficult to stick with the Paleo eating plan over many months or years because it’s so restrictive, according to the diet’s critics. As a result, its weight loss benefits – and the healthful effects of weight loss—are soon lost.

Good nutrition relies on variety, balance and moderation, according to Marion Nestle, PhD, director of nutrition, food, and public health at New York University, who also wrote an editorial on the Paleo Diet for the Wall Street Journal in March 2015. When one restricts entire food groups, as in the Paleo diet, the risk for nutrient deficiencies greatly increases, according to Dr. Nestle.

A diet that is too restrictive can also take away the joy of eating one’s favorite foods. And while highly processed “junk foods” should be kept to a minimum, a healthy diet can include moderate amounts of your favorite pasta or even an occasional chocolate.

A diet high in saturated fats such as the Paleo diet can lead to obesity as well as health risks such as cardiovascular disease and some cancers, such as colon cancer, according to Paleo diet critics. A diet rich grains and legumes can also be quite healthy and reduce one’s risk morbidity and mortality, according to Dr. Nestle. In fact, many studies show that Asian and Mediterranean diets—rich in carbohydrates and healthy fats such as olive oil, and low in meats and saturated fats—promote health and longevity.

The Paleo diet does get kudos even from its critics for cutting down on processed foods like white bread, artificial cheeses, cold cuts, processed meats, and sugary cereals. These processed foods contain less protein, fiber and iron than their natural counterparts, and are high in sodium and preservatives that increase the risk for heart disease and some cancers.

The Paleo diet is also based on some fallacies, its critics say. Although Paleo diet proponents say Paleolithic hunter-gatherers did not experience cardiovascular disease, signs of atherosclerosis have been found in the Paleolithic era remains. Paleolithic hunter-gatherers were less likely than modern man to succumb to cancer, obesity, and diabetes—but it may not have been because of their diet. Paleolithic people also did not live long enough to acquire these diseases since they were at great risk for morbidity and mortality from infections and parasites.

The Paleolithic diet was not uniform either. It varied greatly based on geography, season, and opportunity. Our Paleolithic ancestors may have evolved and survived, not because of their reliance on a single type of diet, but because they were flexible eaters—a trait that helped them endure in changing times and conditions.

  1. Petrucci K. and Nestle M. Is a Paleo Diet Healthy? The Wall Street Journal. March 23, 2015.
  2. Jabr F. How to Really Eat like a hunger-gatherer: Why the Paleo Diet is Half-Baked. Scientific American. June 3, 2013.
  3. Hamblin J. Science Compared Every Diet, and the Winner Is Real Food. The Atlantic. March 24, 2014.

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Is the Paleo Diet Healthy? Arguments For The Paleo Diet

Posted on Posted in Continuing Education, Homestudy, Nutrition, Seminars

breakfast-1058726_640More than one-third of U.S. adults are obese—and at high risk for obesity-related diseases such as metabolic syndrome, diabetes, cardiovascular disease, and some cancers. Yet is the Paleo Diet, one of the newest weight-loss trends, the most healthful way to reduce the risk of obesity-related diseases?

The Paleo diet—which relies on eating like our hunter-gatherer ancestors — is one of today’s most controversial diets. It is based on the nutrition of our ancestors living in the Paleolithic period between 2.5 million and 10,000 years ago. The Paleo nutrition plan is a low-carb diet based on meat, non-starchy vegetables, and fats such as coconut oil. It eliminates many of the products of modern agriculture—such as grains, dairy products, beans, and soy products.

Since the 1990s, researchers have known that lifestyle factors, such as diet, can lead to obesity-related health risks, morbidity, and mortality. Yet whether the Paleo diet really plays an important role in avoiding these risks is hotly debated among leading nutritionists.

Arguments for the Paleo Diet: A Good Bet for Reducing Health Risks

The Paleo diet is not only helpful for losing weight—it also has the potential to reduce the incidence of diabetes, high cholesterol, metabolic syndrome, and hypertension, according to some nutritionists. Paleo diet proponents even claim that the Paleo nutrition plan can decrease the risk for cancers and inflammatory diseases.

Some studies do show that a Paleo diet can be beneficial for those with metabolic syndrome, and it can also lead to lower HbA1c levels, lower triglycerides, and lower blood pressure levels, according to Kellyann Petrucci, a naturopathic physician, who wrote an editorial for the Wall Street Journal in March 2015.

Dr. Petrucci argued that some studies suggest that the Paleo diet can be as healthful as the Mediterranean diet for reducing risk for cardiovascular disease and some cancers. She argued that studies have suggested that the Paleo diet in patients with ischemic heart disease may lead to better glucose tolerance and a larger drop in abdominal fat than the Mediterranean diet. She also maintains that diets high in carbohydrates increase risk for colon cancer, while the Paleo diet may reduce this risk.

Some scientific studies have found no evidence that diets high in saturated fats and low in carbohydrates increase risk for heart disease, according to Paleo diet proponents. The criticism that the Paleo diet leads to nutritional deficiencies is also unfounded, according to nutritionists who favor the Paleo diet. Paleo diet foods such as salmon, kale, and broccoli, for instance, are high in calcium. Necessary dietary fiber and nutrients can also be found in the vegetables and fruits, seafood, eggs, and meat found in the Paleo eating plan.

  1. Petrucci K. and Nestle M. Is a Paleo Diet Healthy? The Wall Street Journal. March 23, 2015.
  2. Jabr F. How to Really Eat like a hunger-gatherer: Why the Paleo Diet is Half-Baked. Scientific American. June 3, 2013.
  3. Hamblin J. Science Compared Every Diet, and the Winner Is Real Food. The Atlantic. March 24, 2014.

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