Water: The Fountain of Youth?

Posted on Posted in Continuing Education, Homestudy, Nutrition, Seminars, Webinars

By Dr. Laura Pawlak

Based on the fact that about two-thirds of the body is composed of water, it seems obvious that consuming water is important for health.  Water requirements have been studied for decades.  Recommendations are narrowed to two alternatives:  Consume a minimum of eight cups of liquid per day or drink to quench thirst.

Research now reveals that drinking water when feeling thirsty boosts the brain’s performance in mental tests.  Dr. Caroline Edmonds, the author of a lead study, found that reaction times were faster after people drank water, particularly if they were thirsty before drinking.

Drinking more water than normally consumed is associated with a reduced intake of calories and sodium.  The study, led by Prof. Ruopeng An, showed that people who increased their consumption of plain water by one to three cups daily lowered total energy intake by 68-205 calories each day and their sodium intake by 78-235 grams per day.

A popular trend these days, alkaline water is promoted as a healthier choice than plain water. Several brands of alkaline water are available or machines can be purchased that make alkaline water.

Proponents claim that alkaline water kills cancer cells, banishes belly fat, lubricates joints, protects bone density, reduces acid reflux, and improves hydration.  What scientific evidence lies behind these claims?  Despite the promotion of alkaline water by the manufacturers of the product and by the media, there is very little research either to support or disprove the claims.

The pH of water is neutral, a pH of 7.  Chemicals and gases can alter the pH of water.  For example, rainwater’s pH is slightly below 7, as carbon dioxide in the air dissolves in the water and increases acidity.

Water that is too alkaline (pH above 7) has a bitter taste.  It can cause deposits that encrust pipes and appliances.  Highly acidic water tastes sour and may corrode metals or even dissolve them.  Fortunately, as the kidneys filter blood, the pH of blood and all cells are rebalanced close to neutral, avoiding any unhealthy effect of liquids or foods that raise or lower pH.

Citrus fruits are named for their citric acid content, but don’t be fooled by that fact.  Citrons, lemons, limes, oranges, and grapefruits — all citrus fruits — produce alkaline byproducts once digested. So, you can squeeze juice from a lemon or other citrus into plain water and make your own alkaline water.  Enjoy!


Dr. Laura Pawlak (Ph.D., R.D. emerita) is a world-renowned biochemist and dietitian emerita.  She is the author of many scientific publications and has written such best-selling books as “The Hungry Brain,” “Life Without Diets,” and “Stop Gaining Weight.”  On the subjects of nutrition and brain science, she gives talks internationally.

Nourish Your Friendly Bacteria

Posted on Posted in Continuing Education, Homestudy, Nutrition, Seminars, Webinars

By Dr. Laura Pawlak

In a society of anti-bacterial warfare, who would imagine scientists touting the benefits of consuming foods fermented by living microorganisms?

The organisms are called probiotics, which means “for life.”  Identified on the skin and within the body, these beneficial microbes are part of a community of healthful and harmful micro-organisms called the microbiota.  Most probiotics are located in your gut, particularly the large intestine (colon).  Probiotics aid the digestion and absorption of food, improve immune function, overpower harmful gut microbes, and rebalance the microbiota following antibiotic therapy.

Research continues to demonstrate the versatility of these friendly critters. Potential benefits of probiotics have been seen in the treatment of gut discomfort and diseases of the gastrointestinal system.  Other benefits are treatments of vaginal and urinary tract infections.

Probiotics also release vaporous chemicals into the blood system.  Scientists are investigating the healthful effects of these metabolic products throughout the body and  brain — from fetal life through the elder years.

You can improve the number and diversity of probiotics in your gut.  Eating probiotic-rich foods is the first way to shape the makeup of your intestinal microbiota.  Fermented dairy products, such as yogurt, kefir (a fermented milk drink), and some cheeses are major sources of probotics.

Consuming a variety of fermented foods enhances microbial diversity and potency. Include sauerkraut, cider, miso, tempeh (a soy product that originated in Indonesia), buttermilk — or yogurt and kefir made from nondairy sources.  Grapes and grains, which are popular probiotics, can be fermented into wine and beer!

Another way to impact your gut microbiota positively is to eat foods that “feed” the probiotics in your gut.  Called prebiotics, foods with a high-fiber content have a positive impact on the growth of probiotics, but not on the harmful bacteria.  All plant foods contain fiber, but the fiber in whole grains improves the diversity of the probiotics — especially whole wheat and whole barley.

There is some evidence that good quality oils and certain nutrients in plants may also help probiotics to thrive.  The typical Western diet — low in fiber and high in sugar, saturated fats, and processed foods — feeds harmful microbes.  Probiotics are not associated with such negative consequences.

Although the fermentation of food and beverages is an ancient custom, the scientific analysis of the many probiotic species and strains is just now unfolding.  In the future, healthful longevity will certainly include adding more friends (probiotics) to your gut and feeding them well (prebiotics.)


Dr. Laura Pawlak (Ph.D., R.D. emerita) is a world-renown biochemist and dietitian emerita.  She is the author of many scientific publications and has written such best-selling books as “The Hungry Brain,” “Life Without Diets,” and “Stop Gaining Weight.”  On the subjects of nutrition and brain science, she gives talks internationally.

Drink Coffee, Live Longer?

Posted on Posted in Continuing Education, Homestudy, Nutrition, Seminars

By Dr. Laura Pawlak

A coffee plant can live 100 years.  Could humans extend their lives closer to a century by enjoying a cup — or more — of the brew each day?

Coffee beans are seeds of a red fruit called the coffee cherry.  Like all plant foods, coffee beans contain more than a thousand healthful chemicals.

The benefits of drinking coffee are pretty impressive.  The roasted bean has been shown to enhance brain function, increase metabolic rate, and improve exercise performance.  Used to make a daily beverage, the bean has also been linked to a lower risk of dementia, Parkinson’s disease, Type 2 diabetes, stroke, liver disease, and some cancers.

Several studies have found that men who regularly consumed the most coffee (including decaffeinated) had a 60 percent lower risk of advanced or lethal prostate cancer than nondrinkers.  Even drinking one to three cups per day was linked to a 30 percent lower risk.

However, the coffee bean also contains a potentially harmful chemical called acrylamide.  In 2002, Swedish scientists discovered that acrylamide was a product of the browning reaction.  When foods are heated at a high temperature during baking, broiling, frying, or roasting, the appearance, flavor, aroma, and texture of foods are enhanced by the browning reaction — as in toasted bread, French-fried potatoes, and roasted coffee.

The amount of acrylamide in coffee can vary greatly.  Well-roasted, dark coffee beans have less of the chemical than light, roasted beans.  All instant coffees have more acrylamide than fresh versions.

There is no way to remove all the acrylamide from coffee.  Still, the coffee industry is working on practical solutions to reduce its presence.  Should buyers be informed about this chemical with warning labels on the package?  This question is currently being debated in the California court system.

Presently, Americans consume less acrylamide than the maximum exposure levels recommended by the European Food Safety Authority.  To top it off, two recent studies in the Annals of Internal Medicine found that coffee drinkers have modestly lower mortality rates than people who don’t drink coffee.

The Food and Drug Administration’s best advice regarding acrylamide is that consumers adopt a healthy eating plan.  The Wellness Letter, University of California, Berkeley, states:  “There is no reason to deprive oneself of coffee if you like the lift it gives and the sociability it affords.”  If coffee affects you adversely, tea is another popular beverage linked to many health benefits.


Dr. Laura Pawlak (Ph.D., R.D. emerita) is a world-renown biochemist and dietitian emerita.  She is the author of many scientific publications and has written such best-selling books as “The Hungry Brain,” “Life Without Diets,” and “Stop Gaining Weight.”  On the subjects of nutrition and brain science, she gives talks internationally.

That Time Of Year Again: Cold and Flu Season

Posted on Posted in Continuing Education, Nutrition, Seminars, Webinars

By Mary O’Brien, M.D.

It’s that time of the year again.  It’s that awful season when nearly every third person you encounter looks and feels miserable.  Headache, fever, cough, congestion, myalgia, and malaise signal flu season is in full force.  Health officials are already proclaiming this (2017-18) the worst flu outbreak in over a decade.  Considering the dreadful natural disasters of 2017 and record-breaking cold temperatures across two-thirds of the nation, we shouldn’t be surprised.  Every year flu outbreaks spike shortly after the holidays, and the travel, stress, sleep deprivation, and crowds associated with the holidays.

A few time-tested, common sense measures may help protect you, your loved ones, colleagues, and patients:

  • Wash your hands. Wash your hands.  Wash your hands — thoroughly and often.  Hot, soapy water is best, but hand sanitizers and disinfectant wipes come in handy at the grocery store or in the car.
  • Avoid touching your face, especially around your eyes, nose, and mouth. These areas can serve as an entrance ramp for viruses.  Try to resist the temptation.
  • Increase your fluid intake. Bitter cold temperatures combined with heat from furnaces and fireplaces increase insensible fluid losses (fluid lost from skin and breathing).  The resulting dry mucus membranes are not only uncomfortable, but they’re more vulnerable to viral penetration.  Water is best here.
  • Get more sleep than you think you need. A single night of inadequate sleep can compromise lymphocyte numbers and function.  Give your immune system the restorative time it needs to protect you.
  • Don’t overextend yourself. Most folks are already tired from the holidays.  Give yourself some downtime before you have no choice in the matter.
  • Avoid crowds like the plague. Contagion is partly a numbers game.  No one has to go to a crowded movie theater or restaurant.  Stay home and clean out a closet.
  • Consider getting a flu shot now. So far this year (2018), the efficacy rating is not good.  But, some protection is better than none.  Remember, antibody production will take about two weeks after the shot.

And — finally — if you do get the flu, please stay home.  There is nothing noble or heroic about spreading influenza to colleagues and patients.

In the meantime, stay warm and well.  I have to go wash my hands now.

Protein Powders

Posted on Posted in Continuing Education, Homestudy, Nutrition, Seminars, Webinars

By Annell St. Charles, PhD, R.D., L.D.N.

Protein supplements and powders have become all the rage over the last few years, particularly for people trying to build muscle.  However, most Americans already get all the protein they need from their diet, and some may even be getting too much.

Proteins are made up of amino acids, which are the key component of muscles and play many important roles in body maintenance.  Meat, poultry, fish, eggs, nuts, seeds, and legumes (dry beans or peas such as lentils, chickpeas, and kidney beans) are good sources of protein, and most Americans consume 12 to 18 percent of their calories as protein.  Dr. Van S. Hubbard, director of the NIH Division of Nutrition Research Coordination, says that most Americans do not need to worry about getting enough protein. “Unless they have some other medical problem, most people are meeting or exceeding their protein requirements,” he says. “Since protein is such a common component of most foods that you eat, if you’re eating a relatively varied diet, you’re getting enough protein.”  However, some populations, like vegetarians and older people, need to be aware of the protein in their diets.  Vegetarians can get the protein they need from rice, beans, eggs, peanut butter, dairy products, and bread.  Vegans need to be particularly careful, as they do not consume either eggs or dairy products.

A recent National Institutes of Health study of men and women age 70 years and older found that those who ate the least protein lost significantly more muscle than those who ate the most protein.  Older adults who lose muscle in their legs and hips are more likely to fall and have injuries like broken hips.  They may also have trouble doing basic things like getting up from a chair, walking upstairs, or taking a stroll due to loss of muscle strength.  For elderly people who cannot eat enough protein or who have diseases that leave them malnourished, a protein supplement can be one way to help get enough protein.

Nevertheless, the majority of Americans derive little benefit from increasing their protein intake.  Long-term studies found that high-protein diets that result in weight loss usually work as a result of the amount of calories rather than the amount of protein being consumed.

Recent weight loss, muscle fatigue, or a drop in muscle strength may be signs of protein deficiency, but these symptoms could also be due to other health conditions.

The Party’s Over

Posted on Posted in Continuing Education, Homestudy, Nutrition, Seminars, Webinars

By Dr. Laura Pawlak

Holiday food and spirits may have disappeared, but those extra calories can stubbornly remain as body fat.  With each new year, an array of diets emerges, promising to restore your former shape.

My suggestion?  This year, follow a new plan called Intermittent Fasting, which has captured the interest of both dieters and researchers.  Intermittent Fasting is a structured program without the drudgery of daily calorie deprivation.

Although traditional reduced-calorie diets are certainly science-based, intermittent fasting is a sensible alternative.  Studies suggest a modified fast is just as beneficial for weight loss as other diets.

For this program, the term “fasting” is defined as consuming a total of 500 calories for women and 600 calories for men on fasting days. If calorie counting is not convenient, you can eat about 25 percent of your normal calories on fasting days.  More importantly, you abstain from eating all calorie-containing foods and beverages for 14 hours (women) or 16 hours (men) on fasting days.

The popular 5:2 Intermittent Fasting Diet is appealing because the two fasting days each week can be chosen to fit one’s schedule best.  On the remaining five days, you eat sensibly.  If weight loss is your goal, it is important to avoid overcompensation during non-fasting days.

Alternate-day Fasting is a more aggressive approach to weight loss.  You consume only 500-600 calories every other day following the 14- to 16-hour fast. Recently, scientists compared the Alternate-day Fasting program with a standard weight-loss diet for six months followed by a maintenance diet for an additional six months.  Persons choosing the fasting program had slightly greater weight loss than individuals following the standard low-calorie diet.

To limit calories during fasting days, consider making a homemade soup, then establish portions and freeze individual servings.  A simple vegetable soup with legumes and wild rice or whole wheat quinoa is nutritious, high in fiber, and low in calories.  A variety of salad ingredients with fish or turkey and calorie-free dressing is always an excellent choice.  An egg-white omelet using fresh or leftover vegetables provides quality protein needed to protect muscle mass.

To dampen appetite during fasting days, choose vegetables high in fiber and protein-rich foods low in fat. Try adding herbs and spices to cooked vegetables.  They light up your taste buds with pleasing flavors and aromas.


Dr. Laura Pawlak (Ph.D., R.D. emerita) is a world-renowned biochemist and dietitian emerita.  She is the author of many scientific publications and has written such best-selling books as “The Hungry Brain,” “Life Without Diets,” and “Stop Gaining Weight.”  On the subjects of nutrition and brain science, she gives talks internationally.

Vitamins & Minerals: What Does The Body Need?

Posted on Posted in Brain Science, Continuing Education, Elder Care, Homestudy, Nutrition, Seminars

By Annell St. Charles, Ph.D., R.D., L.D.N.

In 1912, Casimir Funk, a Polish biochemist, isolated a concentrate from rice polishings that cured polyneuritis in pigeons.  He called the substance a “vital amine” or “vitamine” because it appeared to be vital for life.  There was widespread interest in eradicating several prevalent diseases at the time, and, in an article published in 1912, Funk postulated the existence of four substances:  one that prevented beriberi (“antiberiberi”), one that prevented scurvy (“antiscorbutic”), one that prevented pellagra (“antipellagric”), and one that prevented rickets (“antirachitic”).  Funk was one of several researchers in the early 20th century investigating these and other substances and their connection to health.

Epidemiologists, physicians, physiologists, and chemists all worked on this puzzle through the mid-20th century; the work was slow and onerous and plagued by many setbacks and contradictions.  Chemists were the ones ultimately able to identify and isolate the substances we call vitamins, leading to the development of synthetic forms that are available for wide consumption.  The proposed benefits and risks of vitamins and vitamin supplementation continue to be hot topics today.

The vitamins needed by the body for growth and normal development are:

  • Vitamin A
  • B Vitamins (vitamin B6, vitamin B12, folate, and others)
  • Vitamin C
  • Vitamin D
  • Vitamin E
  • Vitamin K

Vitamins are divided into two groups:

  • Water-soluble are easily absorbed by the gut and stored only minimally. These include Vitamin C, thiamin, riboflavin,niacin, biotin, pantothenic acid, B6, folic acid, B12, and others.
  • Fat-soluble are stored in body tissues and excess accumulation can be toxic.  Vitamins A, D, E, and K are fat-soluble vitamins.

Macrominerals & Trace Elements

These essential inorganic elements are categorized by abundance:

  • Macro-minerals are present in the body over 100 mg:  calcium, phosphorus, magnesium, potassium, sodium, chloride, and sulfur.
  • Trace elements are present in microgram or low-milligram amounts:  iron, zinc, iodine, selenium, copper, manganese, fluoride, chromium, molybdenum, silicon, nickel, boron, arsenic, tin, and vanadium.

More Sugar, Please.

Posted on Posted in Continuing Education, Nutrition, Psychology, Seminars, Webinars

By Laura Pawlak, Ph.D., R.D. (emerita)

Love sugar?  This innate desire for sweets can be traced to an ancient part of the brain — the reward circuit.  The sweet, sensory experience is recorded as a rewarding one as endorphin molecules (natural opioids) bathe the brain.  A long-lasting memory of the tasty experience is stored deep inside the brain.  There is purpose to the “feel good” experience resulting from sweetness.  You will search for, and continue to consume, the ideal fuel for your mind — the simple carbohydrates in sugar.

Nature offers fruits, vegetables, and other plant foods to satiate the need for carbohydrate — along with fiber and a wide variety of nutrients in these foods.  But nature is no competition for the added sugar in today’s super-sweet desserts, snacks, packaged foods, and beverages.  Manufacturers add some form of sugar to 74 percent of their products.

Liquid sugar, such as found in sodas, energy drinks, and sport beverages, is the leading single source of added sugar in the American diet.  The rapidly absorbed sweetened beverage is linked to sugar addiction, obesity, Type 2 diabetes (often called adult-onset diabetes), and other diseases.  Worldwide education regarding the disease risks linked to the consumption of sugary drinks has resulted in the decline of soda sales.  As summer approaches, manufacturers offer new products to quench your thirst — products called plant waters.

These beverages are made from extracts of fruits, vegetables, grains, grasses, and other plant parts, with fewer calories than sugary beverages or no calories at all.  Manufacturers of plant waters promote their products with a variety of unsubstantiated health claims.

For example:  Artichoke Water, a sugar-free, zero-calorie beverage, is claimed to be healthy because artichokes have antioxidant and anti-inflammatory properties.  Where’s the artichoke in this water?

Made with concentrated bamboo-leaf extract, Bamboo Water is stated to contain the powerful benefits of bamboo.  Is bamboo really a food source for humans?

Other beverages produced from plant sources, such as the olive, banana, cactus, barley, and maple sap are also available — all with dubious health claims and varying amounts of sugar.

Here’s a sound approach to quenching your thirst this summer.  Drink these plant waters if you like them and if you don’t mind their cost.  They lack the nutrients and fiber obtained by eating whole-plant foods, and they won’t prevent disease.  The best choice is nature’s offering:  A healthy, refreshing glass of water and some juicy, fresh fruit.  Enjoy the summer!

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Dr. Laura Pawlak (Ph.D., R.D. emerita) is a world-renown biochemist and dietitian emerita.  She is the author of many scientific publications and has written such best-selling books as “The Hungry Brain,” “Life Without Diets,” and “Stop Gaining Weight.”  On the subjects of nutrition and brain science, she gives talks internationally.

Mood and Food

Posted on Posted in Brain Science, Homestudy, Nutrition, Psychology, Seminars, Webinars

What you eat can affect your risk of the most common mood disorder in the United States:  depression.

Mental health begins with lifestyle:  nutritious food; regular exercise; sufficient sleep; and coping skills.

The chemical components of food impact one’s state of mind throughout the day — that is, after every meal and snack.  A long period of time without nourishment (fasting) activates survival emotions throughout the brain.  Food, or the lack of it, thus alters both feelings and thoughts.

A significant part of the treatment program for patients with depression is a brain-healthy diet prescription designed by what may be termed a nutritional psychiatrist.  Clearly, changing one’s eating habits requires more time and energy than swallowing a pill.  However, research in mental health has appeared, showing the flaws of prescribing quick-fix medications — in the absence of healthy habits.

A recent study published in BioMed Central Medicine tested the effect of prescribing both a modified Mediterranean Diet and medication to treat patients with clinical depression.  Thirty-three percent of the patients given medication plus a modified Mediterranean Diet plan achieved remission in 12 weeks.  However, eight percent of the patients prescribed medication only reached remission in the same period of time. (Study by S. Reddy, January, 2017)  This mood-enhancing cuisine is highly concentrated in brain-protective foods:  fruits; vegetables; legumes; whole grains; raw, unsalted nuts; low-fat, unsweetened dairy foods; olive oil; and fish.

The positive effects of nutrition intervention reported in this study have encouraged psychiatrists to prioritize this diet prescription for all patients diagnosed with depression.  The modified Mediterranean food plan may help prevent the incidence of depression in persons at high risk, aid patients who reject medication, and may block the progression from mild depression to serious depression.

Regardless of one’s family history, the brain can slip into an imbalanced state that alters mood and mind-power. The wise statement, “You become what you eat,” applies to everyone.  The original Mediterranean cuisine has already scored high ratings against brain atrophy, pain, and all age-related diseases.  The Mind Diet, another modified format of the Mediterranean Diet, reduces the risk of Alzheimer’s disease.

Cook, eat, and share mood-enhancing meals.  It’s a challenge that delivers great rewards for the brain — sharper thinking and happier moments.
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Dr. Laura Pawlak (Ph.D., R.D. emerita) is a world-renown biochemist and dietitian emerita.  She is the author of many scientific publications and has written such best-selling books as “The Hungry Brain,” “Life Without Diets,” and “Stop Gaining Weight.”  On the subjects of nutrition and brain science, she gives talks internationally.

Finding Felicity in Food and Work

Posted on Posted in Brain Science, Continuing Education, Nutrition, Seminars, Webinars

“Life Is Good.” These three words have blossomed into a worldwide slogan.  Why?  You feel good just reading the words.

These days life elicits more worries than “happies.” Good times are short-lived and may be prone to addiction:  compulsive shopping with credit cards; eating comfort foods loaded with calories; drinking too much alcohol; or searching for drug dealers to soothe emotional or physical pain.  Sustainable happiness begins with the simple things:  the food you eat and the work you do.

Brain imaging has identified the pathway that produces good feelings.  Named the Reward Circuit, you experience an emotional response to foods consumed and work performed. Thus, the recommendation to “eat right and move more,” can improve both happiness and health.

Is eating right a happy experience?  It’s pretty obvious that foods high in fat, sugar, and salt light up the Reward Circuit, elevating feelings of joy.  Is it possible to eat foods that are healthy for the brain and add “happy” to your mood?

Researchers at the University of Warwick in Coventry UK say “yes!”  The staff followed 12,000 adults from Australian households for six years.  Participants kept food diaries and answered survey questions about their lives as well as their mental and emotional health.  By the end of the second year, participants who changed from eating no fruits and vegetables a day to eight portions a day reported feeling happier.  Participants who did not increase their intake of fruits and vegetables over the same period experienced a drop in happiness score.  The “happy” power of fruits and vegetables was equivalent to going from unemployment to a job. (American Journal of Public Health, August, 2016)

Consuming eight servings of fruits and vegetables each day (about four cups) provides thousands of antioxidants and anti-inflammatory nutrients that improve brain function in measurable, mood-altering ways.

What about work?  Regardless of the wording (labor, exercise, work, or toil), the brain activates, controls, and evaluates movement.  Both psychologists and neuroscientists have independently addressed the theory that work ignites positive emotions.

Psychologists investigated a unique consumer issue called “The Ikea Effect,” that is, the consequences of buyers’ assembling items purchased.  The study concluded that assembling an item boosted feelings of pride, confidence, and competence even when the end product was poorly assembled.  It appeared that work, especially with the hands, activated the Reward Circuit.

Real-time imaging of the brain, conducted by Kelly Lambert, a neuroscientist, confirmed the conclusions of the Ikea study.  Dr. Lambert recruited persons with untreated depression and set up work projects, such as pottery-making, wood carving, or knitting.  She demonstrated that labor with the hands and arms activated the Reward Circuit, elevating positive emotions sufficiently to eliminate the symptoms of depression in her patients.  Dr. Lambert labeled the process as “effort-driven reward.”  Yes, work can be a happy experience.  And, when the effort is purposeful and helps others, the happiness rating is even higher. (“Lifting Depression” by Kelly Lambert, 2010)

“The groundwork for all happiness is good health.” –Leigh Hunt, English poet


Dr. Laura Pawlak (Ph.D., R.D. emerita) is a world-renown biochemist and dietitian emerita.  She is the author of many scientific publications and has written such best-selling books as “The Hungry Brain,” “Life Without Diets,” and “Stop Gaining Weight.”  On the subjects of nutrition and brain science, she gives talks internationally.