There are more than 100 different types of arthritis, and, therefore, no single diet will work for every person with arthritis. However, studies have found that green tea, green leafy vegetables, dried plums, and kiwi fruit are all vitamin-rich and have powerful antioxidant properties. Diets which include large quantities of fruits and cruciferous vegetables have been shown to have a beneficial effect on preventing the development of rheumatoid arthritis. In addition, it is clear that carrying extra weight can put significant stress on the joints, and even a small reduction in weight can have an effect on the severity of arthritis symptoms. Studies have shown that losing weight can significantly ameliorate the effects of osteoarthritis. Significant weight gain prior to age 35 — as well as excessive alcohol consumption — has been linked to the development of gout.
Other contributing factors are certain foods and nutritional supplements (vitamins, minerals, and omega-3 fatty acids) which may play a role in preventing and reducing symptoms in some types of arthritis, such as gout, osteoporosis, osteoarthritis, rheumatoid arthritis (RA), and reactive arthritis. Fish oil, particularly when ingested in conjunction with a diet low in arachidonic acid, reduces inflammation in some patients with rheumatoid arthritis. Regular intake of fish has been shown to have a beneficial effect. Consumption of excessive dietary fat, however, appears to exacerbate arthritis symptoms.
WEIGHT LOSS AND THE ARTHRITIS PATIENT
Weight loss for overweight arthritis patients is very important for several reasons. First, as mentioned previously, loss of even a few pounds can significantly reduce stress on weight-bearing joints. Research demonstrates that exercise and combined weight loss — as well as exercise regimens — result in decreased pain and disability and increased performance levels in patients with osteoarthritis. Biomechanical data suggest that exercise in combination with diet may also result in improved gait when compared with exercise alone. Secondly, patients of all ages who have arthritis are much healthier, have an improved sense of well-being, and are less likely to suffer arthritis-related depression when they follow a nutritious, well-balanced diet. The Arthritis Foundation recommends following a balanced diet that includes plenty of fruit, vegetables, and whole-grain products, while limiting consumption of sugar, salt, and saturated fat (i.e., a diet low in fat, high in fiber, and low in sugar).
By Mary O’Brien, MD