Cold Symptoms and Prevention

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By Ben Hayes, MD, PhD, FAAD

Cold symptoms generally emerge between one and three days after a cold virus enters the body.  The symptoms resolve in a week — with or without medication. One cold in four lasts up to 14 days; this most often occurs in children, the elderly, and people who are in poor health. Smokers often have more severe, extended cold symptoms than nonsmokers.

Fewer than five percent of colds lead to such complications as bronchitis, middle ear infection, or sinusitis accompanied by a prolonged cough, but between 5 and 15 percent of children who have colds develop acute ear infection when bacteria or viruses infiltrate the space behind the eardrum. A cold can produce wheezing, even in children who do not have asthma, and symptoms of asthma, bronchitis, and emphysema can be exacerbated for many weeks. Symptoms that persist for more than two weeks or that recur might be more allergy than infection-related.

Post-infectious cough, which usually produces phlegm, may disrupt sleep and persist for weeks or months following a cold. This complication has been associated with asthma-like symptoms and can be treated with asthma medications prescribed by a physician.  Medical attention is indicated if symptoms progress to:

  • ear pain.
  • high fever.
  • a cough that worsens as other symptoms abate.
  • a flare-up of asthma or of another chronic lung problem.
  • significantly swollen glands.
  • strep throat.

Babies can have between five to seven colds during their first two years of life. This enhanced susceptibility results both from immature immune systems and from exposure to older children who are often careless abut washing their hands or covering coughs and sneezes. Nasal congestion and runny nose are the most common symptoms of colds in babies. Treatment consists of breathing moist air and drinking plenty of fluids. Medical attention is indicated at the first sign of a cold in infants less than three months of age because of a heightened risk for pneumonia, coup, and other complications.

Physician evaluation is also necessary if a baby of any age:

  • has an uncomplicated cold, the symptoms of which last for more than seven days.
  • does not wet a diaper properly.
  • refuses to nurse or accept fluids.
  • coughs up blood-tinged sputum or coughs hard enough to cause vomiting or changes in skin color.
  • has trouble breathing.
  • has bluish-tinted lips or mouth.
  • has a temperature higher than 102°F for one day.
  • has a temperature higher than 101°F for more than three days.
  • shows signs of having ear pain.
  • has reddened eyes or yellow eye discharge.
  • has a cough or thick green nasal discharge for more than a week
  • has any other symptoms that concern parents and/or caregivers

Prevention

Common sense plays an important part in preventing the common cold. Absolute avoidance of cold viruses is virtually impossible to achieve, but experts advise keeping a healthy distance from anyone who is ill. The actions the human body takes to clear infection are the same actions that spread the infection to others. Sneezing, for example, is a response to irritation of the nose and mouth. Sneezing as well as a runny nose is the body’s attempt to expel cold viruses before they can invade the nasal passages more deeply. Unfortunately, a sneeze sends infectious particles hurtling through the air at a speed of more than 100 miles an hour.

Simply being in the company of someone who has a cold can contaminate the hands of another person. Touching one’s eyes, nose, or mouth can transfer the infection. It is imperative to wash hands thoroughly after touching someone who has a cold or something that has been touched by someone who has a cold. Playthings touched by a child who has a cold should be washed before being put away. Cleaning surfaces with antiviral disinfectant may help prevent the spread of infection, and increasing interior humidity can reduce susceptibility.

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Arthritis and Diet

Posted on Posted in Continuing Education, Elder Care, Homestudy, Pain, Seminars, Webinars

older-black-woman-rubbing-her-hands-arthritisThere are more than 100 different types of arthritis, and, therefore, no single diet will work for every person with arthritis.  However, studies have found that green tea, green leafy vegetables, dried plums, and kiwi fruit are all vitamin-rich and have powerful antioxidant properties.  Diets which include large quantities of fruits and cruciferous vegetables have been shown to have a beneficial effect on preventing the development of rheumatoid arthritis.  In addition, it is clear that carrying extra weight can put significant stress on the joints, and even a small reduction in weight can have an effect on the severity of arthritis symptoms.  Studies have shown that losing weight can significantly ameliorate the effects of osteoarthritis.  Significant weight gain prior to age 35 — as well as excessive alcohol consumption — has been linked to the development of gout.

Other contributing factors are certain foods and nutritional supplements (vitamins, minerals, and omega-3 fatty acids) which may play a role in preventing and reducing symptoms in some types of arthritis, such as gout, osteoporosis, osteoarthritis, rheumatoid arthritis (RA), and reactive arthritis.  Fish oil, particularly when ingested in conjunction with a diet low in arachidonic acid, reduces inflammation in some patients with rheumatoid arthritis.   Regular intake of fish has been shown to have a beneficial effect.  Consumption of excessive dietary fat, however, appears to exacerbate arthritis symptoms.

WEIGHT LOSS AND THE ARTHRITIS PATIENT

Weight loss for overweight arthritis patients is very important for several reasons.  First, as mentioned previously, loss of even a few pounds can significantly reduce stress on weight-bearing joints.   Research demonstrates that exercise and combined weight loss — as well as exercise regimens — result in decreased pain and disability and increased performance levels in patients with osteoarthritis.  Biomechanical data suggest that exercise in combination with diet may also result in improved gait when compared with exercise alone. Secondly, patients of all ages who have arthritis are much healthier, have an improved sense of well-being, and are less likely to suffer arthritis-related depression when they follow a nutritious, well-balanced diet.  The Arthritis Foundation recommends following a balanced diet that includes plenty of fruit, vegetables, and whole-grain products, while limiting consumption of sugar, salt, and saturated fat (i.e., a diet low in fat, high in fiber, and low in sugar).

By Mary O’Brien, MD

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Celebrate the Brain

Posted on Posted in Brain Science, Continuing Education, Homestudy, Nutrition, Psychology, Seminars, Webinars

fondue-709713_640Thanksgiving and the many holidays that follow are joyful times to be with family and friends.  Holiday cheer, a positive emotion, can also provide the brain with healthful hormones and neurochemicals that improve brain function.

Family traditions boost enjoyment of holiday gatherings.  In a recent series of studies in the Journal of the Association for Consumer Research, subjects described the customs they followed — along with those of their families — during holidays.  These activities were rated as enjoyable, personal experiences that enhanced bondings with family members.  In fact, simply recalling past traditions can put a warm glow on holiday gatherings and support creative thinking.

Memories of childhood or lost loved ones often surface at celebrations.  The bittersweet feeling of nostalgia can elevate mood and mental outlook.  A recent study published in the journal, Emotion, reported that nostalgia boosts a sense of connection to the past, creating a social web that extends across people and time.  This “self-continuity” energizes the brain.  So, pull out an old photo album and spend some time revisiting your past this season.

When listing New Year’s resolutions, resolve to keep friendships alive throughout the year.  The benefits of supportive relationships are numerous.  Research published online in the Journal of Epidemiology and Community Health (2016), stated that individuals who have greater levels of social support enjoy better psychological health and mental functioning.  The reduction of chronic stress and the stimulation associated with meaningful social interaction are strongly linked to improved resilience and reduced risk of anxiety and depression.  There is also a lower likelihood of cognitive decline.

The highlight of any holiday is food, often deeply entwined with tradition, but possibly devoid of brain-healthy choices.  Compromises that allow both brain-healthy and traditionally-happy fare, including desserts, can solve this dilemma.  First, shift the spotlight from rich food to lighter fare by serving salad as the first course.  Go heavy on the greens, colored veggies, and crunchy bits of apples or pears.  Second, make a healthy vegetable side dish the co-star of the main course.  Third, regarding the turkey, think outside the bread box with offerings such as wild-rice stuffing, augmented with vegetables and dried cranberries.  Lastly, the first bite of dessert, thoughtfully consumed, always gets rated as the best.

Enjoy the fabulous taste of that bite!  Then, empower your mind with oxygen — by taking a mindful walk — to complete the celebration of your brain.


Dr. Laura Pawlak (Ph.D., R.D. emerita) is a world-renown biochemist and dietitian emerita.  She is the author of many scientific publications and has written such best-selling books as “The Hungry Brain,” “Life Without Diets,” and “Stop Gaining Weight.”  On the subjects of nutrition and brain science, she gives talks internationally.

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And The Winner Is…….The Grape!

Posted on Posted in Continuing Education, Nutrition, Psychology, Seminars, Webinars

Nature introduced our ancestors to the first sampling of wine about 10 million years ago. As fruit ripened and fell to the earth, a natural process of decomposition occurred.

Microbes in the soil turned fruit sugar into a simpler component, ethyl alcohol.  Some curious, hungry ancestor, eating the decaying fruit, probably rejected the taste, but loved the altered state of mind.  A sophisticated version of nature’s process, called fermentation, was perfected, producing wines that delight the palate as well as the mind.

My  grandmother lived in rural Manitoba, Canada, and made her own wine from wild berries picked in late summer.  Her doctor recommended a glass of wine each night for good sleep and longevity.  In her generation, that glass was small, holding a mere four ounces.  Although today’s wine goblet may be enormous in size, the recommended intake of wine remains 4-6 ounces per day.  At high doses, the alcoholic content of wine may be both addictive and toxic to the brain.  An alternative choice is nonalcoholic wine.

Fermentation of the grape produces any array of chemical changes.  In addition to the conversion of sugar to alcohol, compounds in the grape’s skin and pulp are released, creating more than color, aroma, and a distinctive taste.  Vitamins, minerals, and an array of other nutrients are released into the liquid brew.  One of the heart-healthy plant chemicals concentrated in wine is the antioxidant resveratrol.  How does the content of resveratrol in wine compare with that in grapes or grape juice?

Resveratrol contributes color to grapes.  Red, purple, and black grapes are better sources of the chemical than white or green grapes.  Secondly, there is more resveratrol in the skin of the grape than in the pulp.  Fermentation releases the resveratrol from the grape’s skin into the liquid.  Thus, for the same weight or volume, red wine generally has more resveratrol than dark grapes or its juice.  Keep in mind that the fresh grape is an excellent choice, perhaps better than grape juice or wine.  For variety, peanuts, pistachios, cocoa, blueberries, and cranberries are good sources of resveratrol.

If you want more resveratrol in your diet, get it from food or wine, not from pills. Whole food or a glass of your favorite wine contains nutrients that work with this super antioxidant (resveratrol) for more healthful years.


Dr. Laura Pawlak (Ph.D., R.D. emerita) is a world-renown biochemist and dietitian emerita.  She is the author of many scientific publications and has written such best-selling books as “The Hungry Brain,” “Life Without Diets,” and “Stop Gaining Weight.”  On the subjects of nutrition and brain science, she gives talks internationally.